GSPA: Dissertations

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    Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) and its determinant factors in the Thai non-profit sector
    Pruksa Singhapol; Chindalak Vadhanasindhu (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)
    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which strategic human resource management (SHRM) has been implemented in Thai non-profit organizations (NPOs) and therefore investigate the determinants influencing the application of SHRM in the sector. The study draws hypotheses by employing the factors from institutional and organizational levels to investigate the pivotal personnel management approach, namely strategic human resource management in the Thai non-profit sector. Besides, the study targets organization as a unit of analysis and investigation while administering the sampling methods to ensure that the study result is statistically representative. The research methodology is a mix of qualitative and quantitative approaches. A survey questionnaire and semi-structured interviews were conducted to obtain adequate information to answer key research questions. Prior to that, a literature review of past research and studies has been thoroughly studied and, therefore, the conceptual framework and hypothesis model derived for analyzing the strategic human resource management (SHRM) practices. Following the proposed variables of this study systematically defined and operationalized, a survey questionnaire was then conducted in the target population. Finally, in-depth interviews were conducted with select organization leaders following the survey questionnaire to enhance understanding of the research findings. Research results suggest that five out of eight determinants exhibited for hypothesis testing have a statistically significant relationship and impact on SHRM applications. These determinants are the dependence on external funds, leaders' competence, organization's culture, organization's size, and use of technology. Additionally, a firm conclusion on factors affecting the application of strategic human resource management in Thai non-profit organizations can be made regarding a government fund with supporting evidence from qualitative results. Both qualitative and qualitative analysis information indicated that funds are vital for non-profit organizations to consider when developing an organization's strategy, goal, and human resource plan. The study reveals that non-profit organizations with higher revenue or funding support tend to implement more comprehensive human resource activities than organizations with less funding support. On the contrary, limited funding support tends to adversely impact personnel management in non-profit organizations. To overcome limitations in applying SHRM, the government should consider improving relevant policy and provide essential funding support to non-profit organizations, especially associations and unregistered organizations. Ultimately, due to limited available information on the population size and unclear definition of non-profit organizations in Thailand, the "non-profit organization" definition was grounded with the Social Welfare Promotion Act, BE 2546, which determines the population size of this study. Nonetheless, this might be slightly discrepant from the actual population size of non-profit organizations this study attempts to investigate. Therefore, future studies on relevant topics should acquire more updated and accurate information of the population size, resulting in enhancing the explanatory power of research to pursue predictive power and generalization.
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    The analysis of collaboration in educational quality assurance policy : a case study of Walailak University
    Nantida Jansiri; Pairote Pathranarakul (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)
    Collaboration is a contemporary management concept that is considered essential for achieving development policy outcomes. However, research on collaboration and quality assurance policies in higher education in Thailand has been challenging. The aim of this study was to investigate how collaboration contributes to the successful implementation of the educational quality assurance policy at Walailak University.To address this research question, a mixed-method approach was used which combined qualitative and quantitative research methods. This approach was chosen to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the subject and was based on the collaborative governance theory and resource-based framework. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 key informants who are important actors in the quality assurance process at the university. These interviews were supplemented by a questionnaire survey of 400 respondents from various stakeholders at the university. The findings of this study showed that facilitative leadership, negotiation, trust-building, effort and commitment, and resource-knowledge sharing are among the key determinants contributing to successful collaboration in educational quality assurance. The results also indicated that these factors are interrelated and can contribute to the successful implementation of the university's quality assurance policy. Based on these findings, a model of collaboration in enhancing quality assurance outcomes was proposed and discussed.
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    Analysis of appropriate stakeholder model and critical success factors (CSFs) of public-private partnership (PPP) investment program: empirical evidence of infrastructure development in Thailand
    Supachai Rakpanitmanee; Pairote Pathranarakul (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)
    This dissertation aims to review the concepts and theories relating to PPP interventions, exploring PPP practices at both international and country (Thailand) levels as well as identifying their strengths and limitations. The targeted findings will focus on the strategic stakeholder institutional, policy and operational regulating frameworks with their critical success factors (CSFs) for PPP implementation in Thailand. Public end users’ participation as well as sustainable development goals (SDGs) and specific stakeholders’ success criteria (SC) will also be taken into account in the explored stakeholder model. The researcher utilized the sequential mixed method research, using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The qualitative method was firstly applied to validate the proposed hypotheses derived from literature review stage, and the quantitative method was subsequently applied to confirm the reliability of research findings. Based on literature review, qualitative analysis involving executive interviews, and quantitative analysis involving survey of operational staffs, the research findings recommend a new Public-Private-People Partnership (PPPP) strategic stakeholder institutional model-along with its success goal, success criteria, and critical success factors-to be both policy and operation regulating frameworks that reinforce the merit of PPP practice, in Thailand and beyond. The results of the in-depth face to face interviews with 22 executives from PPP executing agencies confirmed that the people sector is one of key stakeholders to create more PPP success. The explored Public-Private-People Partnership (PPPP) model was proposed to be the strategic stakeholder institutional model. The success criteria (SC) of PPP for each particular sector are mostly accepted as follows: Good public welfare delivery for public owner as contracting agency, rational/reasonable business profitability for private investor, and good quality of life for the public end-user groups. This research concluded that the highest concern of the public sector is good governance, followed by managerial system, legal framework, finance, and politics, respectively. The highest concern of the private sector is also good governance, followed by managerial system, finance, and business policy. And the highest concern of the people sector is project configurations, followed by legal framework, and good governance. Six critical success factors (CSFs) which include politics, legal framework, finance, project configurations, managerial system, and good governance are the key attributes of the explored model. The seventy (70) sub-critical success factors (SCSFs) of the public (29), private (25), and people (16) sectors have been identified and proposed to be policy regulating framework of PPP intervention. The quantitative research, which involved 65 respondents of surveyed questionnaires from 15 agencies, confirms that public or people participation in every stage of PPP procedure is highly essential-with the preferred participation channels involving by academic or professional agency. Lastly, 41 sub-critical success factors (SCSFs) of the public (17), private (13), and people (11) sectors are confirmed and proposed to be the operation regulating framework for PPP intervention. In conclusion, this research recommends that the reform of PPP mechanism in Thailand should be considered and pursued as such actions would likely lead to more sustainable benefits derived from large-scale public physical infrastructure development. The PPPP strategic stakeholder institutional model and its critical success factors discussed in this research could serve to help guide this pursuit. In addition, more research regarding both policy and operation in practice and academic evolution of the proposed PPPP strategic stakeholder institutional model are strongly recommended. And these key research topics should likely include the risk management, performance monitoring, and evaluation system as well as mutual partnership between government and private investors that would result in fair risk allocation, and strengthened PPP knowledge sharing system among all involved parties. Ultimately, the author hopes that the appropriate executions of this PPPP model and guided by the proposed PPPP strategic institutional, policy and operation regulating frameworks would continue to progressively evolve the outcome of sustainable public infrastructure development projects and affectively contribute to the better well-being of people who are end-users and/or impacted groups.
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    The determinants of tax revenue and its redistributive effects on inequality and human development
    Angkana Asawasakulkrai; Ponlapat Buracom (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)
    Taxation is a contentious public policy issue. Whether theoretical or pragmatic senses, tax policy is universally deemed one of the most significant fiscal strategies. While it is mostly viewed as a means for governments to raise revenue, it has much more nuances than just that. In recent decades, due to the ever-widening wealth and income gaps around the world, tax policy has been intensely discussed, debated, and recognized as both the problem causing inequality and the solution to reducing inequality. Taxation as a problem stems from the increasing income and wealth gaps believed to be the direct consequences of ineffective tax policy, tax evasion, and tax avoidance mostly by the world’s top earners. Taxation as a solution emerges as a government action that must be undertaken to repair the damage and restore the social justice. This study aims at investigating the factors claimed to contribute to tax collectability and its redistributive effects. With these two-dimensional purposes, the study is designed as a cross-country quantitative study divided into two stages, using dynamic panel data from 2009-2018 with the target population of 75 countries. The first stage examines the possible cause and effect between three groups of explanatory variables and three outcome variables. The three groups of explanatory variables include institutional, globalization, and socio-economic factors which are based on theoretical significance and past literature. The three outcome variables are individually examined as three dependent variables: overall tax revenue, personal income tax revenue or direct tax, and consumption tax revenue or indirect tax. Furthermore, to understand how taxation contributes to the inequality problem, the second stage investigates the real magnitude of redistributive effects of tax revenues on the quality of life, which is measured by the reduction of income inequality and human development. Gini coefficients of income inequality index and human capital index are proxy variables representing the quality of life. Tax revenue is, in the second stage, transformed into explanatory variables consisting of overall tax revenue, personal income tax revenue, and consumption tax revenue. Tax revenues are designed to be the key component connecting the three groups of explanatory variables in the first stage and the final redistributive impacts on quality of life. The three groups of explanatory variables are also examined directly with income inequality and human capital index in order to identify whether they have direct relationships, or the redistributive impacts only occur through tax revenues. The overall examination of data demonstrates that while the dataset displays large gaps in tax revenues between high- and low-income countries, the institutional characteristics and economic trends of the data have not varied much over the duration of the study. In addition, for all income groups, Gini coefficients and human capital index have remained relatively static during the 10-year period, which is not an encouraging outlook. Although taxation is found to be a major source of income for most countries in the world, it is specifically intriguing that the majority of countries in the study rely more heavily on consumption tax than income tax with the highest consumption tax revenue found among the lower- and upper-middle income countries. While this unbalanced reliance can be seen as a natural economic response to the expanding economy and higher level of consumption, there are institutional concerns supported by the study’s results including partisan politics, corruption, and international trade. When this reliance on consumption tax is investigated with respect to income inequality and human capital development, the results clearly show that the higher rate of consumption tax revenue is an impediment to the government policies or efforts to reduce income inequality and increase human capital development. The findings reveal that the institutional factors have critical roles in tax collectability at varying degrees. The level of democracy is found to be a significant determinant for the collection of both income and consumption tax revenues, supporting the theory of political economy, public choice, and voting paradox. The eventual policy decisions are a reflection of public choice, which is to increase tax revenues for redistributive purposes. The incidence of corruption is however found to have a contradictory effect on tax revenues, which could most likely be explained by corruption itself and the fiscal illusion used by the governments. The higher the incidence of corruption, the higher the level of tax revenue a country needs to fuel the corrupted operations and malpractices. The government would thus seek to raise its revenue mainly through income and consumption taxation. Higher tax rates and higher tax revenues may instead be the intended consequences of tax policies designed and implemented to benefit only a handful groups of elites and politicians. The globalization phenomenon has by far the most astounding impact on the results in this study. The effects created by globalization-related events on both personal income and consumption-based taxes provide an important piece of evidence that the utilization of different functions of tax principles and tax policies is indeed a powerful fiscal tool in the planning and managing of public spending and fiscal policy. The significant impacts foreign trade and free movement of capital have on the overall tax revenue suggest that the more open the economy is, the higher the amount of tax revenue available for public spending, which directly contradicts the theory of compensation and welfare. While globalization today may produce a different set of challenges, it is assumable that countries may have learned how to better handle and manage the ins and outs of the dislocation effects created by the globalized economy. The governments may also have provided more effective policy responses to the globalization effects such as import quota or restrictions that are helpful to domestic producers and employment-related policies providing more stability and security for domestic workers. However, the negative effects globalization has on consumption tax revenue insinuate that globalization does create a chain of events that eventually results in the changes in domestic consumption patterns. The socio-economic factors may not be as much impactful as they are originally and theoretically believed to be in terms of economic growth and directions of fiscal policy. The macroeconomic characteristics conventionally used as determinants for government spending and level of tax revenue no longer carry the predictive power in this new global environment in which geopolitics and internationally integrated economy have become key players. As evidenced by the results from the two previous groups of explanatory variables, the other forces including tax structure, tax policy, tax collectability, quality of domestic institutions, and foreign trade policy appear to play a much larger hand in determining the level of tax revenue and tax collectability than the good old-fashioned macroeconomic or socio-economic indicators. Through taxation, the study also investigates income inequality and human capital development and finds that tax revenues do not produce the outcomes that they are traditionally intended to. Tax revenue is found to have no relationship with the level of income inequality, suggesting that the higher level of tax revenue does not translate into the higher level of well-being of taxpayers. In fact, the reliance on personal income tax appears to lead to higher income inequality despite its progressive structure. The similar results are found with human capital development for which the findings reveal the adverse relationships with tax revenues. A progressive tax system would leave income earners, particularly those of middle- and low-income groups, worse off than before and reduce the accumulation of capital that can be used for human capital development. Several unintended outcomes of the personal income taxation include higher tax rates causing lower disposable income, market and price inflations, and tax avoidance by the well-off. The utilization of consumption-based taxation does not bode well either. Based on the theory of tax incidence, consumption-based taxes do indeed burden low-income individuals and households, resulting in higher inequality and lower human development. All these lead to the phenomenon of shrinking middle class in many countries. As such, tax progressivity might not be the ideal solution to closing the income gaps and achieving wealth redistribution after all. The initial comparative data inform that income inequality and human capital index tend to correspond with the higher level of consumption tax revenues in the majority of countries around the world but have no clear patterns with tax revenue and income tax revenue. To corroborate this result, two comparative statistical models between the top 25 high-tax revenue countries and bottom 25 low-tax revenue countries are performed for an in-dept analysis. The results corroborate the conclusion under which tax revenue, regardless of types, does not seem to have played a role in reducing inequality or improving human development. The only exception is consumption tax revenue, which is found to negatively impact human capital index, proving that consumption-based taxes do have an adverse effect on human capital development. The findings reveal such irony that even when the level of collected tax revenue is high, the quality of life does not progress correspondingly. The most probable explanation that may be offered is that tax revenue, whether income or consumption-based, is being improperly used or misdirected. Even when tax revenue is being put into good use, it may also be possible that other variables may obstruct or obscure the real outcomes of the government’s redistributive programs. Based on the study’s findings, it seems appropriate to conclude that the redistributive power and the future of fiscal policy are rather doubtful. In addition to the progressive system of personal income taxation having turned out to be the fiscal weapon destroying the middle- and lower-income classes, the government’s main reliance on consumption-based taxation rubs salt into the wound. The higher level of tax revenue does not mean the tax money being channeled for redistributive purposes. As such, tax policy may no longer be an exclusive tool specifically designed to reallocate resources or redistribute wealth. It may only be a means for the government to generate revenue streams to fund the traditional mundane government tasks, or worse a source for corruption or questionable government activities. The analysis herein demonstrates that incidence of corruption, misused and misdirected public budgets, free trade policies, personal income tax progressivity, and strong reliance on consumption-based taxation together have undesirable and unintended outcomes that have exacerbated wealth gaps and income inequality in the past half century.
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    The influence of institutional and political system factors on the changes in educational public expenditure and the benefit incidence analysis in Thailiand (1998-2019)
    Phichitchai Kingphuang; Ponlapat Buracom (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)
    This study compares the impact of institutional and political system factors on the adjustment of public education expenditure in Thailand to that of socioeconomic factors. It also investigates the benefit distribution of public education expenditure and the impact of public expenditures on access to education from 1998 to 2019. The study found that bureaucratic decision-making could cause incremental changes in public education spending. The changes were based on the preceding year's public education expenditure, population change, economic growth, and inequality of income distribution, all of which were socio-economic environmental factors that were gradually altered and difficult for the state to control. As a result, the allocation of public expenditure on education altered slightly from the previous year. Changes in education spending were also affected by institutional and political system factors, which are internal factors; for example, government efficiency, political stability, and civil liberties. However, due to the country's high level of inequality, a significant shift in education expenditure requires changes in other factors. For instance, by taking advantage of trade openness to collect revenue for expanding public services, and ensuring that the operation of government agencies is efficient and the budget is used effectively and efficiently.  Yet, an increase in public expenditure on education alone cannot guarantee whether such public expenditures are evenly distributed to households across income classes and regions. The study shows that although public education expenditure has increased the income ratio after accounting for education spending in low-income families and households in other provinces or in different regions, the increase was very slight. The income ratios after benefiting from public education expenditure between high-income and low-income households and between households in Bangkok and households in other regions were reduced, but the gap reduction was not significant. This result demonstrates that education spending cannot, as expected, solve inequality. Furthermore, from 2015 onwards, the allocation of education expenditures has widened the gap in income after accounting for education expenditures between households in Bangkok and those in other regions. Particularly, public expenditure on tertiary education was found to have a clear disparity between high- and low-income classes and between households in Bangkok and those in other regional households. In addition, the COVID-19 epidemic has further increased educational inequality, aligning with the result of the study, which found that government efficiency, political stability, and civil liberties have an impact on public education expenditure. Furthermore, the unequal benefit incidence of education expenditure may have an impact on educational access. In other words, an allocation of education expenditure that is pro-rich or benefits households in Bangkok more than those in other regions has lowered the average years of schooling and literacy rate. Therefore, if the budget allocation is unequal or the benefits cannot be properly distributed to poor households and households in other regions, poor and rural people will not be able to access education, especially in the case of tertiary education. Thus, increasing public education expenditure alone cannot ensure an increase in quality of education and educational opportunities because it also depends on the form of government budget allocation and whether it is distributed fairly to different groups of people. Therefore, the policy recommendations are as follows: 1) political restructuring and the use of participatory budgeting; 2) emphasizing assistance in the form of targeted systems by improving universal coverage services; 3) rational budgeting and increasing the efficiency of the public sector; 4) formulating education policies that focus on improving the quality of education and schools in rural areas; 5) refining the public expenditure allocation system for tertiary education; and 6) focusing on education and technology development.
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    The potential developing model of Sub-district Administrative Organizations (SAO) for the aging society in Roikhansarn area
    Yuvares Ludpa; Montree Socatiyanurak (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)
    This research has four purposes: search for the factors, conditions, phenomena and contexts that affect the potential of local Sub-district Administrative Organizations, which are essential to an ageing society and leads to the creation of a potential local model. There are aspects of an ageing society, including testing the potential model of local Sub-district Administrative Organizations for an aging society and making policy recommendations. Therefore, the researcher designed both qualitative and quantitative research to have both in-depth and broad perspectives leading to the creation of a potential model of local Sub-district Administrative Organizations that are essential to an ageing society and the inherent advantages of an administration and the delivery of public services, including the competencies of the Sub-district Administrative Organization for future efficiency and effectiveness. The research style was a mixed method design, a sequential mixed method starting with a qualitative method, followed by a quantitative method, and then another qualitative method (qualitative method + quantitative method + qualitative method) to get the most precise answer. Therefore, the first qualitative method created a new body of knowledge and confirmation of the construction from real phenomena and the quantitative method. In addition, confirmation of the authenticity of the phenomena by quantitative research was used, including confirming the model, leading to the development of a model that was consistent with the community context. The researcher used theoretical concepts about organizational management and competency, and theoretical concepts about effectiveness and achievement to lead to the study of the potential of local administrative organizations in the care of the elderly and as the research framework for this study. The research topic is the Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO) in the provinces of Roi Et, Khon Kaen, and Maha Sarakham.             The first phase of the research was qualitative, key informants included administrators, namely the presidents of Sub-District Administrative Organizations, Sub-district clerks, the Director of the Welfare and Social Division, and personnel from 15 Sub-district Administrative Organizations in the Roi-Kaen-San area selected from organizations that had received awards for organizational administration as organizations with better organizational evaluation scores. The sampling used a specific selection method according to the research objectives. The research tool was an unstructured interview on issues related to organizational management, performance, effectiveness and achievement, leading to data analysis by using content analysis and writing a descriptive narrative. The research results found potential models of Sub-district Administrative Organizations in the sub-district area for an ageing society. Factors related to organizational management included the factors of management structure, learning resources of the organization and communication, to convey the work of the elderly in Sub-district Administrative Organizations in the Roi-Kaen-San area. The competency factors included leadership factors, follower status, attitude, work skills, and the body of knowledge for the operation of the elderly in the Roi-Kaen-San Sub-district Administrative Organization. These are factors related to the effectiveness and achievement of the Sub-district Administrative Organization's work on the elderly. In addition, the results of the study also found that the factors that promote the effectiveness and achievement of the organization include the collaboration factor, which is critical in promoting the ability of the Sub-district Administrative Organization to perform better on the elderly, particularly in reducing resource constraints in various aspects of the Sub-district Administrative Organization's operations that lead to success in the implementation of elderly management.             The second phase of the research was quantitative, it answered the objectives of the study in order to confirm the potential development model of local Sub-district Administrative Organizations in an ageing society to propose and develop a potential model for local Sub-district Administrative Organizations, thus offering an essential service to an ageing society. The unit of analysis was at the organizational level, comprising Sub-district Administrative Organizations in Maha Sarakham Province, Khon Kaen Province, and Roi Et Province. The population consisted of 392 places, chosen by random sampling according to the research objectives, then using a non-probability random sampling of 200 places from the research and analysis results, creating an SEM model using the PLS Smart Package program, resulting in the testing and development of a model for development. The resulting pattern obtained from the statistical analysis was consistent with the results of the first phase of the research.             In addition, the researcher brought the results of the second phase of research into the third phase of the research study to confirm the pattern following the context of the area by using focus group discussions with 12 relevant organizations, the results were consistent with the Phase 1 and Phase 2 studies, as well.             Therefore, the knowledge and findings from this research can contribute to the Sub-district Administrative Organization's work planning for the elderly in order to strengthen the organization's capacity to accommodate changes in the population structure towards the elderly, particularly in the Roi-Khan-Sarn areas, thus leading to success in work with the elderly.