GSPA: Dissertations

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    The effect of E-Government and good governance on rebuilding trust in government of Sri Lanka : an empirical study of E-Government
    Pathirage, Ishani Anuradha; Pairote Pathranarakul (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)
    The repeated commitment to studies on trust in government is ample within both academia and practitioners. Although, the causes of decreasing trust have been extensively studied. Little has been done on how to restore trust, especially in developing countries. Scholars interested in studying rebuilding trust in government have proposed e-government and good governance as possible mechanisms. Thus, in this study the researcher has raised two important research questions: what effect does e-government have in the process of rebuilding trust in the government of Sri Lanka, and to what extent does good governance mediate the relationship between egovernment and trust in the government of Sri Lanka? In addressing these, this study used mixed methods, major quantitative approach with additional input from qualitative data. Primary data were collected from 281 e-government users through self- administered and researcher-administered questionnaires. The secondary data collected were from assessment reports, government policies, and past research. The quantitative data were analyzed using partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) using Smart-PLS software. Content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. The findings indicated that e-government has effects on trust in the government in the context of Sri Lanka. However, of the three dimensions, only information quality and system quality were significant. Service quality was not a concern of Sri Lankan citizens. Although statistical analysis showed that egovernment was important in the process of trust building, qualitative inquiry did not reveal adequate evidences to support the hypothesis. People demanded a transparent government, efficient service delivery, an accountable government, and a participatory government. Further, the results suggest that good governance significantly and positively affects the trust in government. In addition, each of the four dimensions were found to be significant. The two methods showed consistently that good governance is critical in the process of rebuilding trust in government. More so, good governance partially mediates the relationship between e-government and trust in government. The results of these analyses made two primary contributions. First, the study contributed to the literature on trust in government providing detailed evidences on the possible mechanisms to be adapted by the government of Sri Lanka. Second, while taking in to consideration the deficiencies in the existing literature, this study contributes by confirming the mediating role of good governance in the relationship between e-government and trust in government.
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    Effectiveness of emergency medical services networks
    Chatchanok Karnasuta; Tippawan Lorsuwannarat (National Institute of Development Administration, 2020)
    This study is a network of emergency medical services outside of hospitals in the three provinces of Khon Kaen, Nonthaburi, Ubon Ratchathani and Sa Kaeo provinces that has three objectives: 1) to study the operational processes of the network organization in Emergency Medical Services, 2) to study the effectiveness of the network organization in Emergency Medical Services, and 3) to present the models of the network organization in Emergency Medical Services right with Thailand that operated by Qualitative Research Methodology, In-Depth Interview, Focus Group Discussion, Non-Participant Observation and Document Analysis. Khon Kaen provincial's Emergency Medical Service began with team and organization network building by a physician team in Khon Kaen hospital to develop an emergency referral system. They were supported by the International Cooperation Organization and the local administrative organization to join in the establishment of paramedics. That was the beginning of the systematic emergency medical services in Thailand and helped push forward the law to support the emergency medical system. After that, When the incident and disaster plan was later included in the National Economic and Social Development Plan, provincial medical centres and general hospitals started to establish paramedic units; and the local administrative organization started to participate by endorsement to establish district paramedic units. Ubon Ratchathani province began to establish an emergency response and command call centre in the Provincial Health Office. Nonthaburi and Sa Kaeo provinces established emergency response and command call centres at Phranangklao Hospital and Sa Kaeo Crown Prince Hospital. In addition, Ubon Ratchathani and Sa Kaeo province decentralized the management of emergency response and command call centres to perform outside of hospitals to the local administrative organization. The network building of emergency medical service was successful in Khon Kaen, Ubon Ratchathani, and Sa Kaeo province carried out by unity of purposes of leadership initiatives: to save people in emergencies through emergency medical services outside of hospitals. For this reason, emergency medical networks were established by building relationships and trust with other organizations to persuade to apply existing potential and resource in each organization to the establishment of emergency medical services to people. However, Nonthaburi provincial administrator has not contacted yet agreed to conjointly participate in establishing emergency medical service networks in the area yet. The Khon Kaen provincial network administration of Emergency Medical Service was the most effective due to sufficiently building and expanding the number of network members to cover the entire province area, resulting in the performances can be accessed to emergency patients in time. Whereas the Nonthaburi provincial network administration of Emergency Medical Service was the least effective due to an insufficient number of network members, there were no equipment and tools enough to communicate. Sa Kaeo and Ubon Ratchathani provinces affect communicating with people. Local administrative organizations can disseminate the knowledge and understanding to people to decide to call for emergency medical services through appropriate channels. Suggestion: the government should earnestly hasten to transfer the public health missions to the LAO, EMC should provide an understanding of the legitimacy for the performances of emergency medical services outside of hospitals to the LAO; transfer their missions to the Provincial Public Health Office in each region to represent; provide the cooperation with civil society to organize the standardized of emergency medical services; should integrate the emergency medical management of all organizations in the network; including the integration to combine all types of emergency numbers into a number for the convenience of the users' recognition.
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    A study of the status and role of community organizations in common-pool resource management in terms of public lands
    Kittikan Saengngam; Udom Tumkosit (National Institute of Development Administration, 2020)
    This dissertation is aimed at studying the status and roles of community organizations to manage common-pool resources or public lands. It is a qualitative research based on data collection, which comprises relevant documentary research along with case studies, field research, in-depth interviews and observations. This study is divided into two parts. Part 1 involves a study of the overall concept of common-pool resource management in terms of public lands in Thailand based on documentary research, which includes documents, policies, laws and relevant research. Part 2 involves field research using the case studies of eight areas, comprised of two groups – Group 1 consists of six communities that efficiently manage public lands through community organizations, namely 1) Nam Phang, Nan Province, 2) Ariyothai Samakkhi, Uthai Thani Province, 3) Ban Lao Nuea, Phrae Province, 4) Ban Don Mu, Ubon Ratchathani Province, 5) Chamaep Phatthana, Ayutthaya Province, and 6) Chao Pho Sombun Shrine 54, Bangkok. These communities were used for the study and analysis of the role that community organizations play in common-pool resource management on public lands, as well as the factors that enable communities and community organizations to be strong and capable of managing public lands. Group 2 - Communities that have disputes over public lands. The dispute partners include “communities that are close to public lands” and “the public or private sector, where the State grants the right to use public lands”. This group is used to analyze loopholes in public land management in two areas: Wa Chong Kho, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, and Huai Mek public lands, Khon Kaen Province. The results of the study reveal that most community organizations that play a role in managing common-pool resources are villagers’ organizations set up by community leaders. Later, they are developed as official organizations and upgraded to community forest committees, land committees or are developed from saving groups to cooperatives. In one community, there may be more than one community organization to manage the common-pool resources of its public lands. Functions are assigned in accordance with each group’s specific ability, but they work together. Based on the case studies, it is evident that each community organization has the same role in managing common-pool resources: 1) drafting regulations to control the use of resources, 2) carrying out resource prevention and maintenance activities, such as forest fire prevention patrols, forest fire buffers and afforestation to enhance fertility, 3) formulating resource management plans and submitting them to the public and private agencies concerned to tender requests for support and the budget, 4) developing community knowledge so that members can efficiently manage resources, and 5) building a network for managing common-pool resources in collaboration with other community organizations in other areas. The factors that strengthen community organizations’ ability to efficiently manage common-pool resources or public lands are comprised of, first - leadership of community organizations. Most leaders or group leaders are respected in the community, as they are official leaders, e.g., village heads, village committee and situational leaders as pioneers or core leaders for solving public land issues in communities, such as forest conservation groups or farmland allocation demanding groups. Key qualifications of leaders include having a sense of joint ownership, to create willing cooperation in preserving community common-pool resources. The second factor involves clear rules concerning the use of common-pool resources. Regulations and penalties are clearly defined. Norms are of great importance for controlling the use of resources, e.g. issuing rules prohibiting the utilizing of resources in community graveyards, which have been abided by from generation to generation. This is more effective than imposing penalties and collecting fines. The third factor involves mechanisms for reducing the factors that promote encroachment and protections against the over-use of resources beyond the defined rules. For example, cooperative groups generate income for community people. If they have sufficient incomes they can reduce their use of resources, regardless of future damage. As a result, those resources are sustainable. As for recommendations regarding the review of laws relating to public land management, in order to enable communities to take part in practically managing public lands, the researcher suggests the following: 1) laws, especially pertaining to community rights, should be issued by pushing for a Community Rights Act, 2) all laws pertaining to forests and national parks should be revised, to be consistent with the constitution, 3) laws on public lands should be amended so that they do not contradict each other, and 4) the possibility of adding measures or sections in the Land Code on rights and ownership on community lands should be studied so that land rights documents can be issued in the form of community rights documents or title deeds.
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    Collaboration among government, the private sector, and civil society in the southernmost provinces of Thailand
    Siriluk Khumphiranont; Anchana Na Ranong (National Institute of Development Administration, 2019)
    This research had the objective to study collaboration and the factors which facilitate collaboration between the government, private sector, and civil society in southern border provinces of Thailand. This research also examined problems and obstacles to interagency collaboration across multiple dimensions. Finally, the researcher synthesized the information to develop a proposed model for effective collaboration between government, the private sector, and civil society in the southern border provinces. Data were collected using qualitative methods, such as focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with a sample of 48 key informants, including managers and staff of agencies in the three sectors of interest. The focus was on personnel who had responsibility for inter-agency collaboration. The dimensions of collaboration include the economic sphere, education, justice/security, community/society/culture, and rehabilitation and promotion of quality of life for persons adversely affected by the unrest in the sub-region. Primary data were processed using content analysis, and the results were linked with relevant theory and concepts from the literature. This study of collaboration between the government, private sector, and civil society in the southern border provinces identified different types of cooperation. In the government, there are collaborative partners, networks, and cooperative governance. In the private sector, there are bilateral partners, networks, and arrangements in which the private sector entity is considered a joint owner of the project. Civil society groups usually are part of a network with which the government may have established a working mechanism (Collaborative Governance) and network collaboration (Collaborative Network). This research has identified four principal types of collaborative management: 1) JurisdictionBased Management Model; 2) Top-Down Model; 3) Cooperative and Recipient Management Model (i.e., Donor-Recipient Model); and 4) Reactive Management Model (Reactive Model). As for the structure of the government, most agencies have not created a special unit to manage collaboration with other agencies or sectors. However, if there is a special issue linked to the resolution of unrest in the subregion, an ad hoc unit may be set up for collaboration, including the creation of working mechanisms through various committees. Neither the private sector nor civil society organizations have dedicated units to promote collaboration. However, civil society may take a more proactive approach to support requests for coordination to assist with negotiations with interest groups and advocacy of certain issues. Mechanisms for government collaboration include both formal (i.e., MOUs) and non-formal agreements. The private sector and civil society do not emphasize the importance of having an MOU, but if they do enter into an MOU, that will help build confidence for cooperation. There are both horizontal and vertical collaborative activities. This research was able to identify factors that facilitate cooperation between the government, private sector and civil society in the southern border provinces of Thailand. Starting from the strongest, these factors include the following: Expectation of mutual benefit, mutual agreement, common goals, and information sharing. The factors which obstruct or impede collaboration include (deficiencies in) the following: Resources and management processes, organizational culture and relations between organizations, the structure and mechanism of work, coordination and communication, competency of personnel in the organization, and organizational environment. The synthesis of facilitating and impeding factors was conducted to produce a proposed model which the government can apply to improve prospects for effective collaboration with the private sector and civil society in the southern border provinces of Thailand. The model consists of the following components: 1) Having common goals; 2) Having mutual benefit; 3) Having mutual agreements; 4) Sharing information; 5) Having a supportive structure and mechanism for coordination and communication; 6) Ensuring effective management resources and processes; 7) Promoting a favorable organizational culture and relationships between organizations; 8) Building competency of personnel in the organization; and 9) Creating a favorable organizational environment.
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    Collaborations in emergency management of the 2011 great flood in Bangkok metropolitan region
    Singhanat Rajbhandharak; Anchana Na Ranong (National Institute of Development Administration, 2019)
    One of the most debated issues during large scale disaster around the world is how to collaborate the multi-sectors relevant to emergency management to join one mission. The study aimed to explore the contextual and process factors that are associated with implementing inter-organizational collaborative management among multi-sectors; Public organization, Private organization, Government organization and Non-Governmental Organization (P-P-G-N). Collaborative arrangements among all P-P-G-N network are found to be complex, difficult to implement, and liable to failure when not fully explored and recognized. A variety of Qualitative Research methods for collecting data is used to validate and triangulate the data. While participants for interviews would be carefully considered to create diversified proportion among all those three main levels of organizational hierarchy; Strategic level, Tactical level, and Operation level. The framework is developed and validated through multidisciplinary literature synthesis,and the main fieldwork which applies qualitative methods based on multiple group studies from various sectors in the 2011 great flood in Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR).The Findings of this dissertation was primarily to provide a comprehensive framework for collaborations in crisis and emergency management in Thailand. Findings reveal that Successful collaborations in Emergency Management depends on five themes; 1) Disaster Planning and Management Capacity building for large scale disaster, 2) Integrated mass communication in large scale disaster, 3) Integrated flood mitigation measures, 4) Integrated response and relief and 5) Emergency management governance and legislation Such a framework will serve as a guideline for all spheres of sectors at all level in order to implement emergency management during crisis or large scale disaster in an effective and efficient manner. It also can help public policy-makers, public managers, academics, and collaborating organizations in identifying the inhibitive, supportive prerequisites, and in general influencing contextual factors. Eventually the unmeasurable damage can be reduced. The concept of this study can be called “Collaborations in Emergency Management (CbEM)" which would help the relevant organization to turn tragic into victory when large scale disaster strike in the future
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    People's participation in public policy process : a case study of participation in ordinance making of local administrative organizations in Suphanburi, Thailand
    Tanasarn Chongpanish; Achakorn Wongpreedee (National Institute of Development Administration, 2019)
    This study aimed: 1) to study the development of local administration in Suphanburi, Thailand, emphasizing people’s participation in policy-making process,i.e. local ordinance; 2) to study and identify the obstacles regarding local ordinances by people’s initiatives in the local administration organizations in Suphanburi; and 3) to provide solutions and policy recommendations for people’s participation in the local administration in the case of local ordinances by people’s initiative in Suphanburi and the entire country of Thailand. The research questions are: 1) How does the development of local administration in Suphanburi emphasize people’s participation in the policy-making process and ordinance creation?; 2) Why have the local ordinances by people’s initiatives in Suphanburi never been enforced, and what are the obstacles?; and 3) What are the solutions regarding people’s participation in the local administration in the case of local ordinances by people’s initiative in Suphanburi and for Thailand overall? This study used qualitative research methods. The data obtained were of two types of data; primary data were from field survey, in-depth interviews, and focus group interviews; secondary data were from related documents, ordinances, research, and academic articles. The key informants were the government officers responsible for supervising local administrative organizations, executives in the local administrative organizations, community leaders, and law experts The results of this research provide solutions regarding the problems surrounding people’s participation local administrations, policy recommendations, and recommendations for future research. The three main research questions were asked in order to ascertain the obstacles to the people’s participation in local ordinance creation in Suphanburi. The research results revealed that the total of participation rate in Suphanburi was at a medium to low level. Although the local administrative organizations encourage the people to participate in public hearings, the results turned out to be not attractive. The main obstacle concerned the socio-economic problems, i.e. level of education, poverty, and local ways of life. The second obstacle involved the laws, rules, and regulations related to the local administrations. The third obstacle was the local political culture of Suphanburi. Therefore, the results confirmed the hypotheses that the three obstacles were the main problems concerning the people’s participation in the creation of the local ordinances in Suphanburi. The research results showed that the model of people’s participation in the creation of the local ordinances introduced by the western countries could not be applied to the locals in Suphanburi. The bureaucrats that are working closely with the people are not proactive enough to encourage the participation rate. At the same time, the local people were bored, inactive, and did not see the importance of participation in their local ordinance creation process. At the end of this research, the researcher made two levels of policy recommendations: government policy recommendations and local administrative organization recommendations. The increase of people’s participation in local ordinance creation must be carried out by the people themselves with the full of support from the government. The government should launch policy to lift up the people’s quality of life, education, and opportunity for making a living, and meanwhile the local people should acknowledge their rights and duties of citizenship; they should be responsible for their local hometown and not just wait for government support.