|dc.description.abstract||This research was a correlational-comparative study. Its objectives were 1) to determine the predictors and the prediction percentage of psychological state group in total and subgroups, 2) to determine the predictors and prediction percentage of teacher’s exploring and exploiting knowledge for moral development in total and subgroups, and 3) to examine the direct influences of psychological trait latent variable and situational factor latent variable on teacher’s exploring and exploiting knowledge for moral development latent variable, and their indirect effects via psychological state latent variable. Based on Interactionism model, this research employed a multistage quota random sampling method. The sample were 720 teachers from 12 private high schools in Thailand. Multiple regression analysis and Structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied to test hypothesis.
There were four groups of variables in this study as follows. 1) Exploring and Exploiting Knowledge for Moral Development included three variables as knowledge exploring behavior, knowledge exploiting behavior, and supportive behavior. 2) Psychological Trait Group included three variables, included future orientation, Big-O personality, and need for achievement. 3) Situational factor group included six variables which were divided into 2 subgroups: first the pro-situational factors, consisted of perceived organizational support, role model, social norm, second, the con-situational factors consisted of peer influence, workload, and family burden. 4) Psychological State Group consisted of three variables including acceptance of duty, attitudes toward behavior, and self-efficacy. Most of the variables were measured in the form of summated rating. Each measure consisted of 7-15 items. The measures were verified for their quality with Item discrimination, Item total correlation, Reliability, and Confirmatory factor analysis. The reliability score of each measure ranged between 0.60 to 0.88. Data were analyzed in total sample and several subgroups categorized by biosocial background.
The research results were as follows. First, MRA using psychological traits and situational factors, with the total of nine predictors of the three psychological state variables indicated the supportive results for hypothesis 1. The important findings were as follows. 1) All six predictors yielded predictive percentage of 49.50% on acceptance of duty in total group. The predictors ordered in descending were social norm, need for achievement, Big-o personality, future orientation, peer influenced, and perceived organizational support. 2) All five predictors yielded predictive percentage of 40.30% on attitudes toward behavior in total group. The predictors ordered in descending were social norm, need for achievement, Big-o personality, workload, and peer influence. 3) All four predictors yielded predictive percentage of 42.2% on self-efficacy in having at least one child group. The predictors ordered in descending were workload, Big-o personality, social norm, and need for achievement.
Second, results from MRA using psychological traits, situational factors, and psychological state with the total of 12 variables as predictors of the three dependent variables indicated the supportive results for hypothesis 2. The important findings were as follows. 1) All six predictors yielded predictive percentage of 55.60% on exploiting knowledge behavior in total group. The predictors ordered in descending were acceptance of duty, self-efficacy, future orientation, Big-o personality, family burden, and peer influence. 2) All nine predictors yielded predictive percentage of 54.20% on supportive behavior in total group. The predictors ordered in descending were acceptance of duty, self-efficacy, future orientation, role model, family burden, need for achievement, Big-o personality, peer influence, and workload. 3) All three predictors yielded predictive percentage of 47.2% on exploring knowledge behavior in teachers with additional position. The predictors ordered in descending were acceptance of duty, future orientation, and role model.
Third, result from path analysis indicated the model fit for the adjusted model. The results support the interactionism model, where psychological trait and situation factor latent variables had direct influence on exploring and exploiting behavior latent variable with indirect influence via psychological state latent variable which could explain the behavior latent variable (R2) = 55.60%. In this study, the additional direct effects from psychological trait latent variable to both situational latent variables in terms of pro-situational latent variable and con-situational factor latent variable. Furthermore, the additional direct effect from con-situational factor also found on pro-situational latent variable. This finding suggested that the hinder situational variables negatively affected the pro-situational variables.
Based on the important findings in this study, the recommendations for practice are 1) There should be experimental research for the test or evaluation using the present research result as basic data and focus on developing secondary school teachers for their preparedness and enhancement in exploring and exploiting knowledge behavior for moral development in school. 2) Other types of assessment criteria may be employed for comparisons, e.g., assessment by co-administrators, section chiefs, level chiefs, head/assistant head of learning substance groups, or colleagues, to ensure increased objectivity. 3) It is the duty of teachers to constantly exploring knowledge as a life-long effort along with exploring and exploiting knowledge behavior for moral development in school. 4) The research should also be conducted in teachers who teach in other levels such as primary level, vocational level, or degree level as it can serve in fostering teachers’ acceptance of duties in student moral development as well as self-efficacy in student moral development.||en