Model for quality of life enhancement in community-based tourism by understanding factors influencing social inequalities, Thailand

dc.contributor.advisorKanokkarn Kaewnuchth
dc.contributor.authorAkkhaporn Kokkhangpluth
dc.date.accessioned2022-02-28T07:33:46Z
dc.date.available2022-02-28T07:33:46Z
dc.date.issued2020th
dc.date.issuedBE2563th
dc.descriptionThesis (Ph.D. (Integrated Tourism and Hospitality Management))--National Institute of Development Administration, 2020th
dc.description.abstractThis research aimed 1) investigate the factors that effect to Social Inequality in communities -based tourism, Thailand  2) to examine the structural equation model between factors that effect to social inequality and factors that effect to quality of life in communities-based tourism, Thailand and 3) propose model quality of life enhancement in community-based tourism by understanding factors influencing social inequalities, Thailand.  This study was a mixed methods research based on quantitative and qualitative research to obtain data. The research conduct to develop the structural equation model obtained by a questionnaire that was used in this part by collecting data from people in community-based tourism in Mae Kampong Community in Chiangmai, Koh Pitak Community in Chumphon, Baan Ku Ka Sing Community in Roi ed, Bannatonchan Community in Sukothai. The research were using 200 samples. Data was a process to analyze to exhibit the characteristic of data distribution of variables using descriptive statistic, i.e. mean, standard deviation using table and description to explain and to analyze collected data from sample population which was personal data, opinion level of people in community towards Economic Capital and trade liberalization (ECON), The processing of justice, Law and regulation (REG), The structure of public administration (GOV), System of land ownership (LAND), Technology (TECH), External Actors (EXTER), social inequality (INEQU), and Quality of life (QOL) on model quality of life enhancement in community-based tourism by understanding factors influencing social inequalities, Thailand. After that in-depth interview with key informant to fulfill and support quantitative data. Moreover, research was analyzing the structural equation model according to hypothesis, this research aimed to examine structural equation model (SEM). The result reveal that the structural equation model (Modified Model) was congruent with the empirical data after the adjustment. It implied that it could accept the main hypothesis that the theoretical model was congruent with the empirical data. Considered the chi-square statistic c2) = 55.576, degrees of freedom (df) = 62, P value = 0.705 which could meet the criteria as it was greater than 0.05. The ratio between the chi-square statistic and number of degrees of freedom or the relative chi-square (c2/df) = 0.896 which could meet the criteria as it was less than 2 and lower than the determined criteria that was equal to  2. Therefore, the model was congruent with the empirical data. The congruence from the goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.96, AGFI = 0.928 which could meet the criteria as it was higher or equal to 0.90, NFI = 0.977, RFI = 0.956, TLI = 1.005 and CFI = 1.000 which could meet the criteria as they were greater than 0.90, PNFI = 0.505 which could meet the criteria as it was greater than  0.50 and  RMSEA = 0.000 and RMR = 0.034 which could meet the criteria as they were lower than 0.05  and Hoelter value = 326 which could meet the criteria as it was higher than 200. Overall, all indices were in the determined criteria, then the model was considered congruent with the empirical data. In addition Economic Capital and trade liberalization (ECON), the processing of justice, Law and regulation (REG), the structure of public administration (GOV), System of land ownership (LAND), Technology (TECH), and External Actors (EXTER) factor have positive direct effect on inequality (INEQU) factors. On the other hand those factors have negative direct effect on Quality of Life (QOL) factors. Moreover, Economic Capital and trade liberalization (ECON), the processing of justice, Law and regulation (REG), the structure of public administration (GOV), System of land ownership (LAND), Technology (TECH), and External Actors (EXTER) factor have negative indirect effect on quality of life through social inequality issues. Summarize of hypothesis test were accepted all hypothesis while the result of hypothesis had positive and negative as per information above which direct to social inequality and quality of life. To propose has been a gap for the development of quality of life. From most important factors that are related which includes the Economic Capital and trade liberalization (ECON), The processing of justice, Law and regulation (REG), The structure of public administration (GOV), System of land ownership (LAND), Technology (TECH), and External Actors (EXTER) are the factors that can lead to quality of life which based on the use of numerical values of factors loading from lowest to highest in order to lead to the improvement of quality of life. In addition; considered those factors are affected on social inequality based on the use of numerical values of factors loading from highest to lowest in order to lead to the improvement of social inequality as follow; The factors concerning social inequality issues revealed that the most important variable is the causal variable is Law and regulation (REG), followed by technology (TECH), Economic Capital and trade liberalization (ECON), The structure of public administration (GOV), External Actors (EXTER), and System of land ownership (LAND) respectively. While the factors concerning quality of life (QOL) revealed that the most important variable is the causal variable is Law and regulation (REG), followed by the structure of public administration (GOV), Technology (TECH), External Actors (EXTER), Economic Capital and trade liberalization (ECON), System of land ownership (LAND) respectively.th
dc.format.extent554 leavesth
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfth
dc.identifier.doi10.14457/NIDA.the.2020.93
dc.identifier.otherb212349th
dc.identifier.urihttps://repository.nida.ac.th/handle/662723737/5583th
dc.language.isoength
dc.publisherNational Institute of Development Administrationth
dc.rightsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.th
dc.subjecte-Thesisth
dc.subject.otherCommunity based tourismth
dc.subject.otherQuality of lifeth
dc.subject.otherTourismth
dc.subject.otherSocial inequalityth
dc.titleModel for quality of life enhancement in community-based tourism by understanding factors influencing social inequalities, Thailandth
dc.typetext--thesis--doctoral thesisth
mods.genreDissertationth
mods.physicalLocationNational Institute of Development Administration. Library and Information Centerth
thesis.degree.departmentThe Graduate School of Tourism Managementth
thesis.degree.disciplineIntegrated Tourism and Hospitality Managementth
thesis.degree.grantorNational Institute of Development Administrationth
thesis.degree.levelDoctoralth
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyth
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