|dc.description.abstract||This research aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the waste minimization of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA), study relevant factors, and propose an appropriate system of BMA's waste minimization (BMAWM). The data were collected through document research, participatory observation, and interviews with the BMA administrators and officers, and community leaders. Data analysis employed the CIPP-I framework for BMAWM evaluation, SWOT analysis for factor analysis, and Input-Process-Output (I-P-O) model for developing an appropriate system of BMAWM.
The results of the BMAWM evaluation by the CIPP-I framework revealed that: (1) Context: positive issues regarding government and BMA policy and plan, industry and private sectors collaboration, communication technology, Bangkok environment, solid waste's law, and inadequate issues on the people's waste littering behavior, and local politicians; (2) Inputs: inadequate issues in terms of number of personnel, personnel development, budget, communication tools, waste utilization capacity, and organization management; (3) Processes: positive issues regarding monitoring and evaluation, BMAWM guidelines, and inadequate issues on the BMA district action plan, personnel acceptance, law enforcement, public participation promotion, open communication activity, and waste separation collection operation; (4) Products: positive issues in terms of the agencies participation, incresed amount of waste utilization, and accomplishment issues in terms of communities participation in community-based solid waste management, waste separation types and waste composition remaining unchanged, and amount of waste disposal increasing; and (5) Impacts: on environment was high level of carbon dioxide emissions; impact on the economy in terms of collection and disposal cost, renewable resources loss, low collection fee; and positive impacts on society were people's participation, earnings of low-income people, waste collection workers, and recycling businesses.
Internal factors affecting BMAWM consist of concrete plans and strategies, the appropriate administrative structure has the power to set policies, budgets, materials, equipment, personnel, and can issue BMA ordinances, stipulated as an essential policy by the Bangkok governor, clear assignment of responsible personnel, integration all sectors' collaboration, and shared value-creating for BMA officers. External factors consist of concrete government policy, responsibility for waste management of manufacturers, the strength of recycling business, knowledge, and awareness of the population on waste separation and value of waste, public and private participation, communication technology, and waste separation law development.
The appropriate system of BMAWM by the I-P-O model consisting of; Input dimension: create BMA zero-waste committee and BMA district zero-waste committee, support personnel, personnel development, increase communication tools, support budget for the BMA district’s waste minimization management, broadcasting for public awareness, research and develop waste minimization process, and improve vehicles and plants for waste separation collection system. Process Dimension: announce Bangkok's zero-waste agenda, establish a solid waste minimization action plan, promote all sectors' cooperation, promote the community-based solid waste management into the communities and the 14 target groups, complete waste collection services, promote home composting, enforce waste management law conscientiously, monitor and improve enact the guidelines. Output dimension: create KPIs action plan implementation including communities and the 14 target groups solid waste management participation, increase amount of waste utilization, the ratio of waste separation types changed, the waste composition changed, the amount of waste disposal decreased, BMA district waste decreased, and people have the behavior of solid waste reduction and separation.||en