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ปัจจัยที่ส่งผลต่อการจัดการกากอุตสาหกรรมตามหลักเศรษฐกิจหมุนเวียน กรณีศึกษา บริษัท บอนกาแฟ (ประเทศไทย) จำกัด
กฤษณา รัตนาภิรมย์; ณพงศ์ นพเกตุ (สถาบันบัณฑิตพัฒนบริหารศาสตร์, 2023)
การศึกษาครั้งนี้มีวัตถุประสงค์เพื่อศึกษาแนวคิดทฤษฎีเกี่ยวกับการจัดการกากอุตสาหกรรมตามหลักเศรษฐกิจหมุนเวียน (Circular Economy) ปัจจัยส่วนบุคคลที่ส่งผลต่อการจัดการกากอุตสาหกรรม และการสร้างความร่วมมือรวมถึงทัศนคติด้านการจัดการกากอุตสาหกรรมให้กับพนักงาน กรณีศึกษาบริษัท บอนกาแฟ (ประเทศไทย) จำกัด โดยใช้วิธีการศึกษาเชิงปริมาณ (Quantitative Research) และใช้การวิจัยแบบสำรวจ (Survey Research) โดยใช้แบบสอบถาม (Questionnaire) เพื่อรวบรวมข้อมูลปฐมภูมิจากกลุ่มตัวอย่าง คือ พนักงานบริษัท บอนกาแฟ (ประเทศไทย) จำกัด จำนวน 80 คน รวมถึงการศึกษาจากข้อมูลเอกสาร (Documentary Research) ที่เกี่ยวข้อง ผลการศึกษามีดังนี้ 1) ด้านปัจจัยบุคคล พบว่ากลุ่มตัวอย่างส่วนใหญ่เป็นเพศหญิงอายุระหว่าง 20-39 ปี มีอายุการทำงานน้อยกว่า 10 ปี และมีตำแหน่งงานในฝ่ายผลิต โดยปัจจัยส่วนบุคคลของพนักงานที่ต่างกันนั้น ไม่ส่งผลต่อการจัดการกากอุตสาหกรรมที่แตกต่างกัน 2) ด้านการสร้างความร่วมมือของพนักงาน พบว่าบริษัทควรให้ความสำคัญกับการนำกากอุตสาหกรรมกลับมาใช้ประโยชน์ต่อบริษัทและสิ่งแวดล้อม 3) ด้านความเข้าใจประเภทขยะและการกำจัดขยะแต่ละประเภท พบว่าควรใช้มาตรการและมาตรฐานที่กำหนดจากภาครัฐเป็นบรรทัดฐานในการจัดการกากอุตสาหกรรม และสุดท้าย 4) ด้านความเห็นของบุคลากร มีความเห็นสำคัญเห็นว่าควรนำหลักเศรษฐกิจหมุนเวียนที่มีการใช้ในบริษัทมาประยุกต์ใช้ในชีวิตประจำวัน ทั้งที่บ้านที่ทำงานและที่สาธารณะ อีกทั้งควรจะส่งเสริมความมุ่งมั่นในการใช้ซ้ำและลดการสร้างของเสียให้เหลือน้อยที่สุด
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Factors influencing consumer's purchase intention in e-commerce live streaming shopping--based on the social presence theory and tam
Xu, Chao; Li, Zhongwu (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)
The development of information technology and the popularity of smart devices have gradually changed people's way of production, life, and thinking and promoted the constant replacement of social media. The model of live streaming should emerge in time. With its unique advantages in drainage ability, sociability, and sense of experience, the live streaming mode has attracted much attention. In increasingly increasing industries, a new development opportunity for online e-commerce has valued its powerful ability to monetize content. With the continuous upgrading of consumption mode, consumers pay more and more attention to the sense of experience in consumption, and the traditional online shopping mode of "graphics" has been increasingly unable to meet consumer demand. The "e-commerce + live broadcast" mode has received wide attention in this context. It perfectly integrates the "person-goods - field", and novel forms of commodity information presentation and communication have brought consumers more accurate visual and perceptual experiences. E-commerce live streaming has become an important way for consumers to shop and a new way to obtain information and carry out social activities. Therefore, it is of great practical significance to study consumers' purchase intention in live streaming shopping to develop e-commerce live streaming. This study collected 453 online data of consumers who use live streaming shopping, aiming to determine the main factors influencing consumers' willingness to use live streaming shopping. The relevant features of live streaming shopping are deconstructed into interactivity and vividness; combined with the technology acceptance model (TAM) and the introduction of psychological motivation (social presence), the purchase intention model of live streaming shopping consumers is constructed. The effective sample data were processed by SPSS 24.0 and AMOS 24.0. The research results show: perceived usefulness has the most significant impact on purchase intention, followed by social presence, interactivity, perceived ease of use, and vividness; Social presence had the most significant influence on perceived usefulness, followed by perceived ease of use, interactivity, and vividness. Interaction has the most significant impact on social presence and vividness. Psychological factors are essential in consumers' use of live streaming shopping. Integrating management and psychology expands the research channel of consumers' behavioral intention in live streaming shopping. In practice, the research results provide valuable guidance for live streaming merchants and anchors to formulate effective marketing strategies and suggest specific development for live streaming shopping platforms. Finally, this study's limitations and follow-up research prospects are also explained
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Cooperation on differences from the adaptation on cultural diversity a case study of Yuan Communication, Ton Tan Sub-District, Sao Hai District, Saraburi Province
Duangkamon Wetchawong; Nareenoot Damrongchai (National Institute of Development Administration, 2023)
The purposes of this research study are 1) to study the conflicts caused by the coexistence on the cultural diversity of Yuan people in Ton Tan Subdistrict, 2) to study the adaptation process of Yuan people in Ton Tan Subdistrict to create cooperation on differences among groups, 3) to examine the cooperation arising from the adaptation of Yuan people and people of other cultures,  4) to investigate the problems and obstacles in the adaptation to create unity on differences among groups of people, 5) to seek suggestions for the adaptation to create cooperation on differences among groups of people for societies or communities that face the problems of coexistence on the cultural diversity and want to create cooperation. The qualitative research method was employed.  The target group included Yuan people in Ton Tan Sub-district, Sao Hai District, Saraburi Province, and 40 key informants were selected by a purposive sampling method based on the inclusion criteria. Data were collected by two methods, namely 1) document research and 2) field research focusing on in-depth interviews with the key informants using interview guideline, participant and non- participant observation. Data were analysed by descriptive interpretation to understand the phenomenon according to the perspectives of the people in such culture, along with the use of logical reasoning. The findings can be presented as follows. 1) The conflicts caused by the coexistence on the cultural diversity of Yuan people in Ton Tan Subdistrict were divided into two aspects: 1.1) unclear conflict or prejudice in differences, including the problem of ethnic disrespect from having different ethnic identities and 1.2) disagreements or rejection of differences, including the problem of expression of actions different from each other in a contradictory way in concepts or forms of presenting ethnic identity through social spaces.  2) The adaptation process of Yuan people in Ton Tan Subdistrict to create cooperation on differences among groups included two cases based on the conflicts and expressed behavioural adaptation, namely 2.1) the adaptation due to unclear conflict or prejudice in differences from other groups of people and 2.2) the adaptation due to disagreements or rejection in differences from other groups of people. There were two characteristics of adaptation processes with four stages and four approaches as follows. 2.1) The adaptation due to unclear conflict consisted of four steps and two approaches. The four steps consisted of (1) identifying issues, (2) brainstorming solutions, (3) choosing the best option which involved two approaches: (3.1.) creating impression on other groups and (3.2) creating confidence in other groups, and (4) implementing the decided option. 2.2) The adaptation due to disagreements consisted of two characteristics of adaptation processes with four steps and four approaches. The first characteristics focused on negotiation or adaptation process after the problem occurred, which was composed of four steps: (1) identifying issues, (2) brainstorming solutions, (3) choosing the best option which involved one approach: (3.1) negotiation based on the shared important principles, and (4) implementing the decided option. The second characteristics focused on actions or the adaptation process after the previous approaches failed. It consisted of three steps, namely (1) brainstorming solutions, (2) choosing the best option which involved four approaches: (2.1) creating impression and interestingness in differences, (2.2) creating trust in relevant people with differences, (2.3) creating confidence in quality and benefits of differences, (2.4) negotiation based on the shared important principles, and (3) implementing the decided option. 3) The cooperation arising from the adaptation of Yuan people and people of other cultures consisted of two types, namely 3.1) the social groups with two sub-types, namely (1) occupational groups and (2) conservative groups, and 3.2) the non-social groups with two sub-types, namely (1) cultural cooperation networks and (2) using cultural identities to generate income. 4) There were two problems and four obstacles in the adaptation to create cooperation on differences among groups of people, namely (1) stagnation and loss of certain ethnic identities and (2) lack of ethnic awareness and identities which were clear and strong in the beginning. In addition, four obstacles were identified, namely (1) adherence to original beliefs, (2) lack of new-generation village sages or cultural experts, (.3) lack of educational personnel in the community educational institutions to cooperate in cultural work, and (4) participation in thinking and making decisions from a large number of stakeholders. 5) Six suggestions for the adaptation to create cooperation on differences among groups of people were as follows. (1) The societies or communities dealing with conflicts should create a sincere, trustworthy and relaxing environment in the relationship between the parties, which should be done before the negotiation. (2) Positively changing people’s behaviours should be promoted rather than verbal expression or negotiation. (3) When expressing opinions and deciding on solutions to solve problems, it should be specific to the individual with knowledge and expertise about problems and solutions to reduce the time in operation. (4) Past valuable experiences gained without direct experience can be proposed to a social space to create acceptance and cooperation among parties. (5) Creating a sincere and trustworthy environment is important to creating cooperation, and it should be constant and continuous. (6) Creating historical stories that indicate fraternity is an integrative mechanism to promote good relationships and unity between the parties.
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GENEALOGY OF THAI CULTURAL POLICY
Phichai Ratnatilaka na Bhuket; พิชาย รัตนดิลก ณ ภูเก็ต; National Institute of Development Administration. Graduate School of Social Development and Management Strategy (National Institute of Development Administration, 7/6/2024)
The study of Thailand cultural policy is qualitative research using methodology based on genealogy to review “cultural policy” of Thailand. The objectives of this study are 1. to study and analyze Thailand cultural policy of each period in discourse perspective and related context and 2. to analyze practices and situations that cultural policies express themselves to show the connection between the content of Thailand cultural policy, practices and related strategies and the results of cultural policy. The study was indicated that Thailand cultural policy in the era of Plaek Phibunsongkhram (P. Phibunsongkhram) was considered the first period of using “culture” to drive into policy which was important national agenda under “Nation-building Culture” discourse.  During the era of Field Marshal P. Phibunsongkhram, this discourse had become secured and had long been sealing at basic consumption level in Thai society before entering the era of Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat who built “Good traditional culture” discourse to significantly emphasize once again against social and political context.  This resulted in the development guidelines that held on to “Good traditional culture” discourse remain in long development agenda which mainly gave priority to national culture until modern economic development.  This was considered main challenge against cultural policy as seen in modern Thailand cultural policy under “Cultural Capital” discourse which placed development goals to accord with modern economic development.
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ENHANCING SMALL  AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISE INNOVATION PERFORMANCE:ROLE OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS, RESOURCE INTEGRATION, RESOURCE SCARCITY, AND ADAPTABILITY
Vesarach Aumeboonsuke; เวสารัช เอื้อมบุญสุข; National Institute of Development Administration. International College, (National Institute of Development Administration, 7/6/2024)
This study aims to analyze how Accounting Information Systems (AIS) impact the innovation performance of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). Our research specifically focuses on three independent variables within AIS: AIS-Human Capital, AIS-Process Skills, and AIS-System Capability. Additionally, we examine Resource Integration Capability and Scarcity of Resource as mediating variables. To comprehensively investigate these relationships, we introduce Adaptability Capability as a moderating variable. For this study, it has been conducted research in five key regions of Chinese SME activity—Shenzhen, Shanghai, Nanjing, Guangzhou, and Beijing. Employing a snowball sampling method, which was distributed 550 questionnaires and received 487 responses. Using SmartPLS for questionnaire analysis, the findings highlight the significant mediating roles of Resource Integration Capability and Scarcity Of Resource between AIS and innovation performance in SMEs. Essentially, effective AIS can integrate accounting information, offer crucial decision support, and enhance innovation performance by providing valuable yet scarce resources compared to other enterprises. Furthermore, Adaptability Capability acts as a positive moderating factor. The more adaptable the AIS is to changing environments, the more positively it influences innovation performance in enterprises.
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THE INFLUENCING FACTORS AND MECHANISMS OF THE ENDOGENOUS MOTIVATION OF PREVENTING POVERTY RETURN AMONG THE PEOPLE OUT OF POVERTY IN CHINA: A SOCIAL CAPITAL PERSPECTIVE
Zhongwu Li; Zhongwu Li; National Institute of Development Administration. International College, (National Institute of Development Administration, 5/1/2024)
By the end of 2021, China had fully escaped absolute poverty, and by the end of August 2021, China had identified more than 5 million people as being subject to monitoring to prevent them from returning to poverty. Of these, more than 76% had eliminated the risk of returning to poverty, but about 24% were still at risk. The risk of returning to poverty exists because of policy and objective factors, such as policy withdrawal, and individual subjective factors, such as welfare dependence or a lack of willingness to escape poverty. Individuals may lack the motivation to escape poverty, and the elimination of absolute poverty is likely to be temporary. Once the national support policy is loosened after full-scale poverty eradication, there is a high risk of people returning to poverty or falling into relative poverty. The key to eliminating poverty is adherence to the principle of people-centredness. Individuals are not only the target of poverty management but also the main body of poverty eradication. Individuals’ lack of endogenous motivation to eliminate poverty is a fundamental factor in the return to poverty; therefore, enhancing endogenous motivation for poverty elimination inhouseholds and blocking the path of dependence on poverty are the key factors forrealising real poverty eradication. To investigate the internal mechanism influencing endogenous motivation for poverty elimination, this study takes as its theoretical basis drive theory, self-determination theory (SDT), and social capital theory, and constructs a conceptual model for preventing the return to poverty based on the results of the previous research and incorporating social capital; autonomy needs, competence needs and relatedness needs; perception of government support; and endogenous motivation for poverty elimination. Social capital is the independent variable; autonomy needs, competence needs and relatedness needs are the mediating variables; and perception of government supportthe moderating variable. Endogenous motivation for poverty elimination is the dependent variable, while gender, marital status, education level, number of children and age are thecontrol variables. The research hypotheses and pathway relationships between the variables were verified using AMOS and SPSS analysis tools. The results showed that 12 of the 14 research hypotheses were supported, and it appears that social capital has a significant positive effect on autonomy needs, competence and relatedness needs, as well as endogenous motivation for poverty elimination. Autonomy, competence and relatedness needs have a significant positive effect on endogenous motivation for poverty elimination. Autonomy, competence, and relatedness needs all mediate between social capital and endogenous motivation, but only partially. Perception of government support positively moderates the relationships between competence needs, social capital and endogenous motivation, but does not moderate thatbetween autonomy needs, relatedness needs, and endogenous motivation. It is thus clear that the withdrawal of government support policies does not always have an impact on the return to poverty. The empirical results of this study have important academic value and practical significance. Based on the results, we propose suggestions for the government and relevant departments to stimulate the endogenous motivation of people who have been lifted out of poverty in China to prevent theirreturn to poverty by, for example, enhancing the level of knowledge of and satisfaction with the government’s support to improve their perceptions of that support, thus stimulating their endogenous motivation for poverty elimination. By building social organisational networks, expanding social trust, creating a nurturing environment for the public spirit and basic social norms, we can improve the social relationships, trust and behavioural norms of individuals in various activities to increase their social capital and ensure that theirbasic psychological needs are satisfied, thus stimulating the endogenous motivation to prevent individuals from returning to poverty.
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THE ROLE OF EXPLICIT AND IMPLICIT KNOWLEDGE-SHARING BEHAVIORS IN ENHANCING ENTERPRISE INNOVATION: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY
Vesarach Aumeboonsuke; เวสารัช เอื้อมบุญสุข; National Institute of Development Administration. International College, (National Institute of Development Administration, 7/6/2024)
In the contemporary era of the knowledge economy, the effective management and sharing of knowledge have become pivotal for enterprises to maintain a competitive edge and foster sustainable growth. This paper examines the multifaceted dynamics of knowledge management, innovation, and sustainable development across different sectors, focusing on high-tech enterprises and the pivotal realm of new materials. In high-tech enterprises, the amalgamation of knowledge management practices and innovative business models serves as a catalyst for forging sustainable competitive advantages. However, these enterprises face challenges in knowledge updates and sharing, influencing their development trajectory. Investigating the factors impacting employees' knowledge sharing behavior becomes imperative to fortify knowledge management and enhance innovation capabilities. Moreover, within the realm of new materials, China confronts challenges in the development of critical materials pivotal for smart manufacturing, hindering the transition to mid-to-high-end manufacturing. Augmenting research and development investments in new materials stands essential for China to propel intelligent manufacturing and advance towards mid-to-high-end manufacturing. The study delves into the alignment of new material high-tech enterprises with SDG 9 (Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure), highlighting the role of innovation in ongoing sustainable development. It emphasizes cultivating an innovation-driven ethos, robust knowledge management frameworks, external collaborations, and inventive strategies to shape the future business landscape. Furthermore, the research explores the interconnectedness of knowledge sharing attitudes, cultural values, leadership styles, and perceived enterprise innovativeness within high-tech new material enterprises. It unveils the direct impact mechanisms, mediating effects, and moderating influences of these factors on perceived enterprise innovation capabilities, offering both theoretical insights and practical implications for fostering innovation within the new materials sector. In conclusion, effective knowledge management, inclusive knowledge sharing, and innovation-centric approaches stand as imperative cornerstones for enterprises, especially high-tech new material industries, to drive sustainable development, enhance competitive advantages, and contribute meaningfully to global sustainable development agendas.
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HOW TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AFFECT INNOVATIVE WORK BEHAVIOR, EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT, AND JOB PERFORMANCE OF FACULTY MEMBERS AT UNIVERSITIES IN BANGLADESH AND THAILAND: THE ROLE OF INNOVATIVE CLIMATE, PARTICIPATIVE DECISION MAKING, AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT
Peerayuth Charoensukmongkol; พีรยุทธ เจริญสุขมงคล; National Institute of Development Administration. International College, (National Institute of Development Administration, 5/1/2024)
For universities to be efficient and stay competitive, they need quality faculty members who are knowledgeable and skilled in teaching, research, and academic activities. In order to have higher faculty performance, universities must foster a supportive work environment and involve them in decision-making, so the faculty members feel empowered and be innovative at work. Essentially, the ability of university faculty members to learn the necessary work behaviors will be greatly influenced by their immediate supervisors. Hence, departmental unit leaders must possess certain leadership traits in order to promote innovative work behavior, engagement and help them perform effectively. Given this, transformational leadership is the prominent leadership style that is highly efficient and constructive to deeply engage their followers and motivate them to go above and beyond their transactional obligations. Despite some evidence about the benefits of transformational leadership in the educational context, there is little study that compares the impact of transformational leadership across countries employing samples from various countries. The first objective of this study is to analyze the effect of departmental units’ transformational leadership on (1) Innovative Work Behavior, (2) Employee Engagement, and (3) Job Performance of their subordinates. The second objective is to examine whether these benefits of transformational leadership could be mediated by (i) Innovative climate and (ii) Participative Decision Making. In addition, the study compares whether transformational leadership’s benefits on innovative climate, participative decision making, and psychological empowerment could be the same for employees in Bangladesh and Thailand, which differ in the levels of power distance. Survey data were collected from 243 faculty members from Bangladesh and 214 faculty members from Thailand. The study used Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) to analyze the data. The results revealed that the departmental heads who exhibited transformational leadership were likely to foster a stronger innovative climate, encourage their members to participate more in decision making, and help their members develop higher psychological empowerment. The mediating effect findings also showed that innovative climates fostered by the departmental heads with transformational leadership tended to enhance the psychological empowerment of faculty members, making them demonstrate a higher level of innovative work behavior, better performance, and higher engagement. Furthermore, the moderating effect analysis showed that the impacts of transformational leadership on innovative climate and psychological empowerment were stronger for the faculty members of Thailand than for the faculty members of Bangladesh. The results offer new empirical evidence that expands the existing knowledge boundaries within transformational leadership literature. Furthermore, the findings of this study align with Sustainable Development Goal number 8 (SDG 8), which endeavors to promote productive employment, decent work, and economic development. Given that universities are the backbone of sustainable economic development, this research suggests that transformational leadership development should be considered as a policy to help the universities enhance competencies of their faculty members, who are the key driving force for achieving this goal.
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THE CONTRIBUTION OF AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP, POLITICAL SKILLS, AND CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE TO PROMOTE KNOWLEDGE SHARING BY LESSENING THE PERCEIVED WORKPLACE EXCLUSION: THE CASE OF FACULTY MEMBERS IN CHINESE UNIVERSITIES
Peerayuth Charoensukmongkol; พีรยุทธ เจริญสุขมงคล; National Institute of Development Administration. International College, (National Institute of Development Administration, 5/1/2024)
Globally, universities have emerged as key innovation centers that play a crucial role in the convergence of science, technology, education, and economic development. Especially in China, universities play an essential role within the framework of the Chinese innovation ecosystem. As China's proposed policies attract a multitude of talents, a substantial number have chosen to return and make significant contributions to Chinese universities. The talented faculty members hired in Chinese universities play a pivotal role in sharing knowledge, serving as the foundational cornerstone for transforming knowledge into innovative elements. Nonetheless, Chinese universities encounter a noteworthy challenge: the reticence of talented faculty members to actively participate in knowledge sharing, which has wasted the chance of transforming knowledge into innovative drivers. Besides, this hesitance is particularly pronounced when talents with diverse backgrounds struggle to integrate into in-groups, leading to workplace exclusion. Accordingly, the exclusion constitutes a fundamental impediment to the unimpeded sharing of knowledge among faculty members. To stimulate knowledge sharing among talented faculty members in Chinese universities, this study, guided by the social classification theory and the institutional theory of leadership, explores the mechanisms involving authentic leadership, political skills, and cultural intelligence to reduce the perception of workplace exclusion and, consequently, promote knowledge-sharing activities. Furthermore, this study explores the mediating role of perceived workplace exclusion in order to clarify the connection between authentic leadership, political skills, cultural intelligence, and knowledge sharing. Due to the limitation of time and fund constraints, this study employs a self-administered questionnaire and a convenience sampling method. Survey data were collected from 387 full-time Chinese faculty members hired by universities who had overseas study or work experience. The data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling with WarpPLS 8.0. The findings highlight the substantial negative impact of perceived workplace exclusion on the willingness and effectiveness of knowledge sharing among faculty members. Furthermore, the results indicate that authentic leadership, political skills, and cultural intelligence (CQ) have a statistically significant negative impact on perceived workplace exclusion. the study validates that authentic leadership, political skills, and cultural intelligence (CQ) have direct and statistically significant positive effects on knowledge sharing. This study offers practical recommendations for universities, not only in China but also in other Asian countries facing similar challenges. These recommendations emphasize the development of authentic leadership traits, the incorporation of political skills training, and the integration of cultural intelligence into faculty development programs. These initiatives aim to address perceived workplace exclusion and, as a result, promote knowledge sharing among faculty members. By addressing this critical issue, the research contributes to the advancement of knowledge-driven innovation in Chinese universities, in alignment with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 8, which emphasizes the significance of promoting decent work and economic growth.
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RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCING FACTORS OF EMPLOYER SATISFACTION OF GRADUATES FROM NON-GOVERNMENTAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN CHINA——TAKING XI’AN NON-GOVERNMENTAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN CHINA AS AN EXAMPLE  
Zhongwu Li; Zhongwu Li; National Institute of Development Administration. International College, (National Institute of Development Administration, 5/1/2024)
Although China's higher education has achieved tremendous development, the quality of employment for college graduates is a key factor determining a country's level of economic development and prosperity. The quality of employment, as the main content and higher requirement of employment, is an important indicator reflecting a country's comprehensive development level and economic prosperity. Universities are the engine of society, and their connection with the real society is becoming increasingly close. Their contribution to local economy and society is also increasing. Graduates of local private undergraduate universities have become the main force serving local economic and social development. The key points of the 2018 work of the Chinese Ministry of Education are to promote more comprehensive and high-quality employment for college graduates. How to accurately improve the employment quality of graduates from private universities can help expand the theoretical dialogue on employment among Chinese college students. The purpose of this survey is to conduct exploratory factor analysis on the satisfaction model of employers established for graduates of private universities. The target of this survey is employers who hire private university students, and the number of students enrolled in these private universities exceeds 20000. A total of 500 questionnaires were sent out during the survey, 462 were retrieved, and 451 unqualified samples were deleted. The effective sampling rate was 90.2%. This study used SPSS to empirically demonstrate an employer satisfaction model based on expectation confirmation and employability. The study showed that the quality of universities, employer expectation confirmation, employer perceived quality, and perceived value are the main factors affecting employer satisfaction; The confirmation of employer expectations has a negative impact on employer perceived value and employer satisfaction; There is a mediating effect between employer expectation confirmation, employer perceived quality and perceived value, and employer satisfaction; The confirmation of employer expectations, perceived quality, and perceived value have a chain mediating effect between university quality and employer satisfaction; The employability of private university graduates has a moderating effect on the quality of universities and the impact of employers on the perceived value of private university graduates. The employability of private university graduates has a significant moderating effect on the impact of employers on the perceived quality and perceived value of private university undergraduate graduates; The confirmation of employer expectations has no significant negative impact on perceived quality. Research suggests that improving the employability of graduates from private universities is one of the most successful strategies for improving employer satisfaction. This study will enhance employer satisfaction from the perspectives of government, schools, and students. The sample size selected for this study is not sufficient, and the rationality of the structure is relatively weak. Further thinking is needed on how to combine research on employer satisfaction, higher education quality, and graduate career development.
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THE IMPACT OF R&D INVESTMENT, KNOWLEDGE SEARCHAND INSTITUTIONAL PRESSURE ON INNOVATIONPERFORMANCE OF HIGH-TECH ENTERPRISESIN GUANG XI PROVINCE
Renliang Li; Renliang Li; National Institute of Development Administration. International College, (National Institute of Development Administration, 5/1/2024)
The enhancement of corporate innovation performance is of paramount importance for sustainable development of businesses, as only by continuously improving innovation performance can companies maintain competitiveness in the market. The essence of innovation in the high-tech industry lies in the ongoing process of high-tech enterprises enhancing their innovation performance. Therefore, researching the innovation processes, models, and influencing factors of high-tech enterprises is a prerequisite for achieving innovation-driven development. Guangxi's high-tech enterprises face challenges related to their innovation capacity and the need to improve innovation quality. In comparison to the more developed central and eastern regions, western China is still in the phase of increasing the efficiency of innovation. Thus, researching how to enhance the innovation performance of enterprises in regions like Guangxi, Yunnan, and Guizhou holds practical significance. This study is based on the theories of innovation performance, knowledge management, and social capital. It constructs a theoretical model to examine the relationships between innovation performance, R&D investment, knowledge search, and institutional pressure. Relevant variables were measured, and a survey questionnaire was designed. Survey responses were collected from 448 senior management personnel in high-tech enterprises in Guangxi. Data analysis was carried out using structural equation modeling and data processing tools like SPSS and SMART-PLS. The research results reveal that certain direct factors were found to be significant. For instance, R&D investment has a positive impact on innovation performance and also on network construction and management capabilities. Both deep and broad knowledge searches positively influence these network capabilities. Additionally, network construction and management capabilities have a positive impact on innovation performance. The study also uncovered significant mediation effects, where R&D investment positively influences innovation performance through network construction and management capabilities. Furthermore, institutional pressure was found to have a significant moderating effect on the relationship between deep knowledge search and innovation performance. By integrating multiple theories, including innovation performance, knowledge management, and social capital, this study broadens its theoretical scope and value. It offers practical recommendations and underscores the critical role of internal capabilities in innovation performance. Specifically, it highlights the mediating role of enterprise network capability. In practical business management, enterprise network capability is indispensable for innovation, as it helps transform information search into innovation capability, enhancing innovation efficiency and optimizing innovation costs. While external environmental factors do play a role, innovation's core still resides within the company itself. Consequently, governments should not focus solely on increasing R&D funding, as an increase in R&D investment does not directly guarantee improved innovation performance.
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Punitive Damages in Environmental Cases
Kiarttiphorn Umpai; เกียรติพร อำไพ; National Institute of Development Administration. The Graduate School of Law (National Institute of Development Administration, 5/1/2024)
This study aims to investigate the problem of assessing damages in environmental litigation under Thai law, in accordance with the National Environment Quality Promotion and Preservation Act B.E.1992 and the Civil and Commercial Code, alongside principles, concepts, and theories relating to punitive damages applied in environmental law offenses. This involves a comparative analysis of punitive damages assessment in environmental lawsuits under Thai law versus foreign laws, specifically in the United States, Australia, and China. The aim is to scrutinize issues in Thai law, particularly those related to the National Environment Quality Promotion and Preservation Act B.E. 1992 and the Civil and Commercial Code, in terms of determining compensatory damages in environmental offenses cases. The study reveals that the principles of infringement under Thai's Civil and Commercial Code are insufficient for application in environmental cases. Moreover, the rule of determining compensatory damages under this civil law does not adequately support the application of punitive damages in environmental lawsuits. This often results in the actual damage that the offender in an environmental case is obliged to pay, being insufficient compared to the actual harm caused. Furthermore, the National Environment Quality Promotion and Preservation Act B.E. 1992 only stipulates liabilities without prescribing any standards for assessing damages. This study proposes that the concept of punitive damages should be applied to increase the remedial damages that a polluter is responsible for, beyond the actual damages they must compensate for. This would act as a deterrent to activities that harm the environment, increase awareness of the potential resulting damage, and discourage others from committing similar offenses. Therefore, legal principles should be established to grant courts clear authority to assign punitive damages in environmental law. This would allow courts to apply these principles effectively and benefit the general public by ensuring that victims of environmental harm receive fair and appropriate compensation.
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Digital marketing communication strategies and the decisions making for accommodation services of generation Y travelers during the COVID-19 Situation
Chanansara Oranop Na Ayutthaya; ชนัญสรา อรนพ ณ อยุธยา; National Institute of Development Administration. The Graduate School of Communication Arts and Management Innovation (National Institute of Development Administration, 5/1/2024)
The purpose of this research was to study of decision behavior to making for accommodation services of generation Y travelers, study of opinions on digital marketing communication strategies of accommodation services of the generation Y travelers and study digital marketing communication strategies related to the decision to making for accommodation services of generation Y travelers. In this study was a mixed method (Mixed Methodology) between qualitative research by focus group discussions with a target group of 7 people, analyzing data by using inductive analysis (Inductive analysis) and quantitative research (Quantitative Research) by survey research (Survey Research) collected data by questionnaire with 400 Generation Y travelers and analyzed the data using statistics such as percentage, frequency, mean, standard deviation and the Pearson correlation statistic The results revealed that 1) Most of the respondents were female with a bachelor degree, an average income 20,001-30,000 baht per month, most of whom work as company employees. 2) The behavior to making for accommodation services of generation Y travelers, found that they had used accommodation services for tourism within the past 1 year more than 7 times. The average cost for accommodation per visit is over 2,001 baht. The reason for the decision making for accommodation services was clean and safe accommodation. The person who influences the decision to use accommodation services is self-determination. The reason for choosing to book an accommodation via the internet was that it has complete information such as accommodation prices, location and room photos, etc. The channel used to receive information about digital marketing was social media such as Facebook, Instagram and Twitter. 3) The level of opinions regarding digital marketing strategies, consisting of Website marketing, Content marketing, Social media marketing and SEO the overall it is at a high level, as for Email marketing, the overall level is moderate. 4) Level of opinions regarding the AIDA MODEL response process towards digital marketing strategies in deciding to use accommodation services as follows: Website marketing, Content marketing, Social media marketing and SEO the overall it is at a high level, as for Email marketing, the overall level is moderate.
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Causal Factors Affecting Generation Z Children's Decision to Study in Higher Education Institutions.
Patchanee Cheyjunya; พัชนี เชยจรรยา; National Institute of Development Administration. The Graduate School of Communication Arts and Management Innovation (National Institute of Development Administration, 5/1/2024)
This research on causal factors affecting generation Z children's decision to study in higher education institutions aims to 1) study motivation,  information seeking, lifestyle, The utilization and gratifications of media and their decision to study in a higher education institution of Generation Z children 2) to study the relationship between lifestyle and information seeking utilization and gratifications of media 3) to study the relationship between motivation and information seeking. satisfaction and utilization of media; 4) to study the relationship between information seeking and media gratifications and their decision to study in higher education institutions of Generation Z children 5) Studying the relationship between media-to-media needs and research into this matter at the higher education level of Generation Z children 6) to study the relationship between the utilization of media and the decision to study in a higher education institution of children of Generation Z 7) studies motivation. seeking information lifestyle and the utilization and gratifications of the media and predicting the decision to study in higher education institutions of Generation Z children. This research was the use of quantitative research. (Quantitative Research) is a oriented approach. Survey using questionnaires as a tool to collect data from a sample of Generation Z children born during this period. which will be aged between 15-19 years, totaling 400 people and using qualitative research. The in-depth interview was conducted with Mathayomsuksa 6students, namely Science and Mathematics students. Art students - calculating numbers and art-language students, totaling 8 people. The results of the quantitative research revealed that motivation, information seeking, lifestyle and the utilization and gratifications of the media predicting the decision to study in higher education institutions of Generation Z children. The qualitative research found that most of the key informants stated that want to have public relations media and the up-to-date information to support the decision to choose to study further.
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 INNOVATION COMMUNICATION OF EDTECH STARTUP ENTREPRENEUR
Kullatip Satararuji; กุลทิพย์ ศาสตระรุจิ; National Institute of Development Administration. The Graduate School of Communication Arts and Management Innovation (National Institute of Development Administration, 5/1/2024)
The research is aimed 1) to study the innovation communication of EdTech startup ecosystem in successful countries. 2) to explore the innovation communication of EdTech startup ecosystem in Thailand. The study was divided into two parts: Part 1: The study of innovation communication af EdTech startup ecosystem in successful countries was conducted by qualitative research through the documentary analysis from public records of the organizations in EdTech startup ecosystem in the United States of America, the People's Republic of China, and the Republic of India. The results show that at the national context level: In the political context, all three countries have clear policies supporting educational innovation, despite differences in their political systems. In the economic context, these countries have significant GDP rankings: the United States is ranked first, China is ranked second, and India is ranked fifth. In the social and cultural context, these countries have the largest populations in the world: India is ranked first, China is ranked second, and the United States is ranked third. In the technological context, these countries invest in research and development in technology and innovation, ranking first in China, second in the United States, and fourth in India. At the industry level: In the United States, there is a diverse range of company types, including corporate learning, upskilling, and post-secondary education. In China and India, the focus is on tutoring and test preparation. At the organizational level: There are various communication strategies for educational innovation. In the United States, the primary focus is on communication with businesses and educational institutions, using Content Marketing strategies to establish leadership positions. In China, the main focus is on communication with students and parents, utilizing Influencer Marketing strategies to build brand awareness. In India, digital and traditional media are used in combination (Hybrid Marketing) to reach a large number of learners. Part 2: The study of innovation communication of EdTech startup ecosystem in Thailand was conducted by qualitative research through in-depth interviews with key informants. The study found that communication roles of EdTech startup entrepreneurs changes corresponding to the organization's growth-startup phase (product-market fit), growth phase (business model fit), and expansion phase (scale). Innovation communication with employees is another crucial aspect for entrepreneurs as it relates to product and service creation, organizational development, and adds value to the company. Research reveals that entrepreneurs communicate with employees on three main fronts: Communication for Business Generation: Involves operations and activities across the entire organization to generate business. Communication to Cultivate Organizational Culture: Relates to establishing shared values among individuals within the organization. Situation-based Communication: Deals with events outside the normal scope, both positive events such as celebrations of success and goal achievements, and negative events such as crisis communication. Furthermore, communication aligns with the organizational structure designed for minimal hierarchy, incorporating representatives from each department to facilitate the exchange of perspectives, ideas, and expertise. This collaborative approach leads to the generation of new innovations. Communication plays a crucial role in building trust, shaping perspectives, and fostering ideas that contribute to the innovation culture of the country. There will be the use of media to make the public aware and understand various innovations, including promoting a culture of learning, exploration, and knowledge discovery.
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Guidelines for Innovation Developing Products and Service Processes to Increase the Service Performance of Four Star Hotels In Phuket Province
Sangkae Punyasiri; แสงแข บุญศิริ; National Institute of Development Administration. The Graduate School of Tourism Management (National Institute of Development Administration, 7/6/2024)
This research aims to study “Guidelines for developing products and service processes innovation to increase service performance of four star hotels in Phuket Province” The objectives are 1) to study products and service processes innovation to increase the service performance of four-star hotels in Phuket province 2) to study the service performance of four-star hotels in Phuket province  3) to study products and service processes innovation to increase service performance of four-star hotels in Phuket Province and 4) to offer guidelines for developing products and service processes innovation to increase service performance of four-star hotels in Phuket Province. The study used a mixed research methodology a combination of quantitative research and qualitative research. The qualitative research consisted of a sample of key informants used by the general manager, manager, or supervisor in the front office department, housekeeping department, food and beverage department, and information technology department of four Star Hotels in Phuket Province (22 hotels certified to tourist accommodation standards by the Thai Hotels Association) using in-depth interviews. Data analysis uses thematic analysis, and a sample is selected. The quantitative research consisted of a sample of 400 officers from the front office department, housekeeping department, food and beverage department, and information technology department of Four Star Hotels in Phuket Province (22 hotels certified to tourist accommodation standards by the Thai Hotels Association) using the purposive sampling method. The tool used to collect data was a questionnaire, which the Human Resources Department sent on social media sites such as Facebook and Line using a random sampling method called purposive sampling. Statistics used in data analysis include percentage, frequency, mean, standard deviation, one-way ANOVA (F-test) analysis of variance, testing of pairwise differences using least significant difference (LSD), and relationship analysis by finding multiple regression analysis. The results of the study found that there were 400 people working at a four-star hotel in Phuket province, most of whom were female, approximately 20–31 years old, with a bachelor's degree and 4–6 years of hotel work experience, all working in the front office department and domiciled in the southern region. The product innovation perception of the four-star hotels in Phuket province revealed that hotel operators are aware of the product innovation of the four-star hotels in Phuket province. Offering new products and services and new service activities for guests to learn about local culture is becoming popular. To create a virtual experience in the hotels, such as making a compress from natural ingredients from the local area, hotel operators are aware of the product innovation of the four-star hotels in Phuket province. For products and service modification, social media used to create advertisements and public relations through Social media for customers or guests to know the hotels 's public relations news, such as Instagram, TikTok, etc. In addition, the perception of service process innovation of the four-star hotels in Phuket province revealed that hotel operators perceived service process innovation of the four-star hotels in Phuket province. Process development involves the development of the services of various departments to correctly respond to the needs of creating a timely impression on customers, and hotel operators are aware of the service process innovations of the four-star hotels in Phuket province. improving work processes, that is, improving processes of using technology to provide continuous and up-to-date customer service, such as systems and automated responses to questions via the hotel's website to respond immediately to the needs of guests and customers, and hotel operators are aware of the service process innovation of the four-star hotels in Phuket province. The changing of the way of working, giving permission to hotel operators to make decisions and solve problems to reduce the time required to respond to various needs and problems in order to bring about the service performance of four-star hotels in Phuket province, revealed that the hotels 's operating results from last year had increased, namely sales, profits, market share, service user satisfaction, returning to repeat services, and increased use of services. The results of the study, The researcher therefore drafted guidelines for developing products and service processes innovation to increase service performance of four star hotels in Phuket Province. Which was obtained from the study according to the research objectives using qualitative research methods and quantitative research in Objectives 1 to Objective 3 to conduct a structural interview with 5 experts and used for content analysis, resulting in guidelines for developing products and service processes innovation to increase the service performance of four-star hotels in Phuket province as follows : products innovation consists of 5 guidelines 1) Development and innovation with the Five Sense  2) Development with perception 3) Development with Unique 4) Development with participation and 5) Development with activity for service processes innovation, which consists of 3 guidelines 1) development of the customer journey 2) development with Flower of Service, and 3) development with modern technology. All 8 guidelines will result in an increase in the operating results of four-star hotels in Phuket province in terms of sales, profits, market share, service user satisfaction, returning to repeat services, and increased use of services.  
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MODEL FOR ENHANCING GREEN PRACTICES IN THAILAND HOTEL BUSINESS
Rugphong Vongsaroj; รักษ์พงศ์ วงศาโรจน์; National Institute of Development Administration. The Graduate School of Tourism Management (National Institute of Development Administration, 5/1/2024)
This research study aims to develop a Model for enhancing green practices in Thailand hotel business, specifically targeting small hotel operators. The study focuses on understanding green practices in the context of small hotels and identifying the factors that influence the implementation of these practices in Thailand. Through a quantitative approach, the study conducted in-depth interviews with 12 successful small hotel owners or managers who have effectively implemented green practices (best practices). The objective was to determine the components of green practices and identify key success factors based on the sample. In addition, a quantitative survey was conducted using questionnaires administered to owners or managers of 318 small hotels located in the Active Beach Cluster (Chonburi, Rayong, Trad, and Chanthaburi). The aim was to analyze the factors that affect the implementation of green practices in small hotels in Thailand. The study findings, derived from literature reviews and interviews with hotel best practices, identified four key components of green practices: optimizing the utilization of community resources (UCR), integrating environmental concepts to gain a competitive advantage (CCA), developing and disseminating environmental awareness to customers (EAC), and protecting the environment (PE). Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was employed to analyze the 20 factors that influence green practices. The analysis revealed that 16 variables could be categorized into four factors: Green Strategic Management, Leadership, Key - Partners, and Employee Empowerment. The research findings indicate a positive relationship between these independent variables and the dependent variable of green practices, with a relatively high correlation coefficient value of 0.788 (R = 0.788). The coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.621, suggesting that the model explained 62 percent of the variance in the dependent variable of green practices. Based on these results, the study proposes a model for enhancing green practices in the hotel business in Thailand, along with an action plan that aligns with the four elements of green practices. The model aims to enable small hotels to effectively adopt and implement green practices, thereby supporting their environmental goals.
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THE CAUSAL MODEL OF FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR AND JOB PERFORMANCE OF GROUND SERVICE STAFF OF LOW-COST AIRLINES IN THAILAND
Sangkae Punyasiri; แสงแข บุญศิริ; National Institute of Development Administration. The Graduate School of Tourism Management (National Institute of Development Administration, 5/1/2024)
This study has the following study objectives: 1)To study factors affecting the Organizational citizenship behavior and the job performance of ground service personnel of low-cost airlines in Thailand 2) To study about harmonious relationship between the path, magnitude of the influence of the Work-life balance, the Perception of Human Resource Management Practices influencing the job performance of ground service personnel of low-cost airlines in Thailand through the Organizational citizenship behavior and empirical data. 3)To develop a causal model of factors that affect the Organizational citizenship behavior and the job performance of ground service personnel of low-cost airlines in Thailand. Sample groups include 210 ground staffs of 3 low-cost airlines in Thailand, namely Thai Air Asia, Nok Air, and Thai Lion Air. The research tool was a questionnaire. Quantitative data analysis was analyzed by SPSS software; there was undertaken with descriptive statistical method and inferential statistical method as well as AMOS software carried out of Path Analysis of structural model and overall goodness of fit in each individual measurement model. The CFA process was employed thereafter with all five constructs by using AMOS software to test overall goodness of fit in each individual measurement model. The results of CFA in all five constructs demonstrated acceptable model fit indices with statistically significant standardized estimates were as shown as follows: 1) The Work-life balance (WLB): χ2/df=2.31 CFI = 0.90, RMSEA = 0.07, RMR = 0.06, TLI= 0.91. 2) Perception of Human Resource Management Practices (PHRMP): χ2/df=2.54, CFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.04, RMR = 0.004, TLI= 0.96. 3) The Organizational citizenship behavior: χ2/df=2.60, CFI = 0.90, RMSEA = 0.06, RMR = 0.02, TLI= 0.91. 4) The job performance (JP): χ2/df=2.68, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.06, RMR = 0.04, TLI= 0.92. For structural model process, the results demonstrated that the full structural model fit was moderate with X2 /df = 2.680, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.06, RMR = 0.04, and TLI = 0.92.
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SLOW FOOD DESTINATION IMAGE DEVELOPMENT MODEL OF ETHNOCENTRISM TOURISTS: A CASE STUDY OF CHIANG MAI, THAILAND
Suwaree Namwong; สุวารี นามวงค์; National Institute of Development Administration. The Graduate School of Tourism Management (National Institute of Development Administration, 5/1/2024)
This study aims to fulfill the existing gap in the literature by examining the slow food destination image development by investigating ethnocentrism tourists in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Currently, slow food destination image is less developed, especially healthy food related to local region (Choe & Kim, 2018; Dimitrovski, Starčević, & Marinković, 2021). Mixed methods research of both qualitative and quantitative techniques was employed to collect and analyze data. To achieve the research aim, four objectives of this study have been raised: first objective; ‘to study ethnocentrism tourists’ behavior who travel to slow food destination in Chiang Mai, Thailand’, second objective; ‘study ethnocentrism tourists’ perception on slow food destination image in Chiang Mai, Thailand, third objective; ‘to study how slow food destination image in Chiang Mai, Thailand related to tourist satisfaction’, and fourth objective; ‘how tourist satisfaction related to future behavioral intention’. The EFA, and multiple regress analysis technique were used to analysis data for quantitative approach. While a content analysis was performed for qualitative approach. A total of participants (29 participants); for quantitative study, a total of 500 survey from were received from domestic tourists. It was found that, the findings of the hypotheses test revealed a positive correlation between the slow food destination image and tourist satisfaction, similarly to tourist satisfaction shown results with positive relationship and future behavioral intention. This study’s findings propose a slow food destination image development model from perception of ethnocentrism tourists. There are four ethnocentrism behaviors that were found from this study: ethnocentrism characteristics, socio–psychological antecedents, personal finance status, and nationalism characteristics. The proposed model of the slow food destination image, comprising of three attributes: 1) functional attribute, comprising three components: destination environment, facilitator, and authentic service quality; 2) psychological attribute, consisting of three components: create idea for the slow food image, create feelings for the slow food image, and create value perception; and 3) uniqueness attribute comprising of two components: cultural events/festivals, and slow food events (man-made). The study findings propose theoretical, practical, and managerial contributions. Governments should especially adopt this model as a guideline and prioritize the regenerative of the tourism industry. It is important to emphasize a well-being lifestyle, sustainability, and equitable treatment of both tourists and locals. Policymakers across all countries are encouraged to incorporate these elements into their tourism planning and development initiatives, such as focuses on slow food concept, good, clean, and fair to develop destination and product for well-being tourist. Future research should concentrate on investigating how to create memorable experiences and how to expand the slow food concept for tourists who lack well-being knowledge and improve health wellness lifestyle prevent sickness in their daily life.
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RISK ASSESSMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL STANDARD AND PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATION PROCESS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL WORKS 
Pakpong Pochanart; ภัคพงศ์ พจนารถ; National Institute of Development Administration. The Graduate School of Environmental Development Administration (National Institute of Development Administration, 5/1/2024)
This qualitative research aimed to conduct the risk assessment in occupational standard and professional qualification process for environmental work by collecting data from key informants based on purposive sampling such as consultants, working group, and endorsement board in total 49 samples from 7 professional groups through the semi-structured interviews. Then, the data analysis conducts with the content analysis to conclude and interpret according to the theories from the occupational standard processes namely 1) Publicizing the project to the target group 2) Studying occupational standards from role model countries 3) Conducting functional analysis to endorsement board for approval 4) Developing assessment tools and evaluating their quality 5) Testing assessment tools and proposing to the endorsement board for approval. The study results found the significant risks from risk identification, risk analysis, and risk assessment at low and moderate levels with risk treatment and management. Based on the findings, several process improvements and developments were recommended including: 1) Determine the selection criteria including the ratio of representation from government agencies, private sector entitles, and independent organizations 2) Determine the public relations plan, period, and result dissemination 3) Organize trainings on functional analysis 4) Recruit the working group 5) Determine common and specific competency 6) Determine the ratio of academic and practical test 7) Facilitate a meeting for understanding and self-assessment among the testing groups and examiners 8) Compile the list of professional experts 9) Collect feedback for improvement and 10) Create a positive perception benefit through the media outreach to the target group.