|dc.description.abstract||China has the largest number and size of smart cities in the world (Deloitte, 2018b). Relevant agencies formulate plans and conducted public hearings with all sectors. They have also drafted a white paper to serve as a guideline to be applied by cities in order for them to develop as smart cities. Thus, this study of the Chinese experience is beneficial for the development of smart cities in Thailand. This dissertation is aimed at 1) studying previous development of smart cities used by Shanghai City, China, such as background, process, steps and models; 2) studying the success factors, limitations, opportunities, challenges and solution approaches related to the development of Shanghai smart city in China in the past; 3) studying strategies and methods of the government of Shanghai City to promote and push smart city industries; and 4) applying information from the study to develop models of smart cities in Thailand in the future.
Shanghai City was selected for this study because it is a key economic city and was ranked second by the “Science Research Council of China” among “China’s TOP 100 smart cities”, after Peking. Samples in the research consist of qualified experts and academics in the public and private sectors related to Shanghai Smart City. Key information providers (30 people) were selected through specific random sampling. Semi-structured questionnaires were used by the researcher as a tool to collect data. The researcher used content analysis along with descriptive statistical analysis to analyze qualitative information. Major issues were taken into consideration in line with research objectives. Then, such issues were divided into sub-issues and linked to the arranged data in compliance with a specified conceptual framework. As for quantitative data, statistics and percentage were used by the researcher to analyze the received data. A triangulation technique was also used in this research to analyze both qualitative and quantitative data.
The development of Shanghai Smart City became obvious in 2011 when the Shanghai Action Plan for Promoting Smart City Construction 2011-2013 was applied to transform it into a Smart City 1.0. In 2014, the Shanghai Action Plan for Promoting Smart City Construction 2014-2016 was put into action to create a livable Shanghai Smart City. In 2018, a three-year plan (2018-2020) was used to change and promote its technology, as well as upgrade the economic level of Shanghai City.
To carry out the strategic plans for developing Shanghai City, there were many limitations, e.g. inadequate cross-functional collaboration among public agencies, difficulties in fund raising, insufficient personnel development mechanisms, and indelicate specific technique standards. However, there exist opportunities for developing Shanghai City, such as central government support, country leaders with vision, new Chinese economic policies, awareness of sustainable city development protocols and outstanding large-scale information technology service providers. Challenges in the development of Shanghai City include insufficient proficiency among agencies responsible for data and digital networks, nontransparent public private partnerships (PPP), lack of personnel and experts, and data network security.
With respect to the strategy for pushing Shanghai City to become a smart city, in the beginning, between 2011 and 2013, the strategy was namely upgrading the information technology infrastructure and providing an outstanding identity, as well as projects stressing pilot projects at the district level. In the current period, strategies have been adjusted by developing them in accordance with plans and lessons learned from previous experience. The central government and local government cooperate in the planning, while the public and private sectors cooperate in development. Cross-organizational collaboration is promoted for sharing, while investment has increased using public policy as a supporting tool.
Smart city development guidelines in Thailand consist of the formulation of clear policies and regulations, design of standard and evaluation, support of public private partnerships, promotion of innovative creativity, development of information technology personnel, development of successful experimental project models, as well as provision of knowledge and understanding, along with public privacy.||th