GSTM: Dissertations

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    Developing a marketing communication strategy for foreign passengers to enhance the positive image of Phuket International Airport
    Kanokwan Srikhwan; Kanokkarn Kaewnuch (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)
    The research on marketing strategy development among foreign passengers to strengthen positive image of Phuket Airport aimed to study marketing situation of Phuket Airport, media perception behavior, to evaluate effectiveness of marketing strategies and Phuket Airport image in the opinions of foreign passengers, to study media exposure behavior of foreign passengers contributing to media perception behavior of Phuket Airport, to study factors affecting perception of Phuket Airport image in the opinions of foreign passengers and marketing communication factors affecting perception of Phuket Airport image, and to develop marketing strategies among foreign passengers so as to strengthen positive image of Phuket Airport. The research was conducted on the basis of mixed method study that combines quantitative and qualitative research methods. With regard to the qualitative research, key informants are 15 persons relevant to marketing communication and image creation for Phuket Airport, consisting of executive representatives and operations staff from Airports of Thailand Public Company Limited (AOT) and executive representatives and operations staff from Phuket Airport. Data were collected using a semi-structured in-depth interview and focus group discussion. As for the quantitative research, the population and sample in the research consist of 400 foreign passengers using services of Phuket Airport, selected by purposive sampling technique according to the inclusion criteria. Data analysis in the quantitative research was conducted using statistical analysis software for hypothesis testing. Descriptive statistics included percentage, mean, and standard deviation. Inferential statistic was One-Way ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis. In terms of the qualitative research, content analysis was used as it provided clarity and certainty. Multiple linear regression analysis results of IMC tools factors affecting perception of Phuket Airport image in the opinions of foreign passengers found sales promotion, public relations, direct marketing, and IMC interactivity had an effect on perception of Phuket image in the opinions of foreign passengers with the statistical significance level of 0.05. Sales promotion, public relations, direct marketing and IMC interactivity mutually described the variance of perception of Phuket image by 59% and had a positive effect on perception of Phuket image in the opinions of foreign passengers. The variable having the largest effect on perception of Phuket Airport image in the opinions of foreign passengers was IMC interactivity, followed by public relations, sales promotion, and direct marketing, respectively.
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    Structural equation modeling of affective commitment through Thainess customer-centric service for boutique hotel 
    Thanasit Suksutdhi; Watsida Boonyanmethaporn (National Institute of Development Administration, 2023)
    The customer-centric service plays a crucial role to enhance customer satisfaction in many service organizations currently. Especially, the service experience creation can invade the emotion and feelings of customers more deeply and expect them to revisit the hotel again. Thainess tends to place a great focus on the spiritual side of humans and the serving of guests naturally from the heart. Thus, this study aims to investigate the effect of the Thainess customer-centric service on perceived service value, customer experience, customer satisfaction, and affective commitment. To develop and test a structural equation model and analyze the direct and indirect effects of all five components based on the perspective of boutique hotel guests during the COVID-19 pandemic. The data was collected by using questionnaires from 528 samplings of boutique hotel guests in Thailand via an online survey via Google form. Descriptive statistics and path analysis were applied. The researcher employed both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics by using structural equation modeling (SEM). Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) with principal component and varimax rotation was employed to test the dimensionality of all 91 question items. In this study, second-order CFA (Confirmatory Factor Analysis) was applied to examine the four constructs, Thainess customer-centric service (TCCS), perceived service value (PSV), customer satisfaction (CS), and affective commitment (AC), which were conceptually and empirically specified as a higher-order factor, while the customer experience (CE) was examined through the first-order CFA application. To improve a model fit, 45 items were removed for further analysis due to the low standardized factor loadings and high correlation measurement error through the review of modification indices. Therefore, the remaining 46 indicators were used to measure the structural equation modeling of affective commitment through Thainess customer-centric service for boutique hotels. A further detailed examination is carried out by looking at the standardized residual covariance of each item and modification indices. After measurement, the number of paths was taken to enhance the validity of the collected data. The fit indices were tested for SEM and found that X2/Df = 0.966,  GFI = 0.941, CFI = 1.000, NFI = 0.964, TLI = 1.002, RFI = 0.952, RMSEA = 0.000, and RMR = 0.024, all of them passed the criteria. The results found that the model is consistent with empirical material in statistical significance. It can confirm that three significant factors affect affective commitment directly which are 1) Thainess customer-centric service, 2) perceived service value, and 3) customer satisfaction, while customer experience indirectly affects affective commitment. Moreover, the Thainess customer-centric service has an indirect significant affected affective commitment through perceived service value, customer experience, and customer satisfaction respectively.    
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    Understanding yacht tourists’ destination loyalty in Phuket, Thailand: a causal relationship model of the influence of perceived marina attributes, tourist perceived value, with the mediating role of destination image, and tourist satisfaction
    Ratchukorn Jonvirat; Sangkae Punyasiri (National Institute of Development Administration, 2023)
    The purposes of this study were to examine marina attributes, destination image, tourist perceived value, tourism satisfaction and destination loyalty of yacht tourists in Phuket, Thailand,  investigate the influence of marina attributes, destination image, tourist perceived value, tourism satisfaction and destination loyalty of yacht tourists in Phuket, Thailand, and  develop a theoretical model of the influence of marina attributes, destination image, tourist perceived value affects to loyalty of Phuket as a yacht destination under mediating effect of perceived destination image and tourist satisfaction. The study utilized a quantitative research method, utilizing an online questionnaire to gather data from 460 foreign yacht tourists who have previously chartered a yacht in Phuket and have stayed at least one night at each of Phuket's four marinas. The study utilized purposive sampling as a non-probability sampling technique. Descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, standard deviation, and mean were used to analyze the data. Additionally, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Model (SEM) were used as inferential analysis techniques. The descriptive analysis provided insights into the attributes of the tourists who visited Phuket's marinas. The majority of the respondents were female, aged between forty-one to fifty-six years, holding a bachelor's degree, traveled with their family, relatives, and the majority of the respondent nationalities were Asian. The behavior of yachting, residents obtained information about yacht tourism from travel agencies and contacted them through websites. The respondents mostly traveled to Phuket to charter a yacht and did so about three times, the majority chose natural attractions. The travel motivations were tourist activities and attractions. Type of yacht charter was crewed charter, and the most of traveled by one-day charters. The level of yacht tourist’s perception upon variables affecting loyalty of yacht tourists to visit Phuket Thailand. The study found that yacht tourists perceived marina attributes at a high level of agreement with five elements which are perceived value, perceived destination image, perceived tourist satisfaction, and destination loyalty. According to the confirmatory factor analysis of yacht destination loyalty, all 22 key aspects can be grouped into 5 components which are perceived marina attributes consisted of 5 observable variables with component weights between .47 and .99, tourist perceived value consisted of 4 observable variables with component weights between .41and .94, perceived destination image consisted of 7 observable variables with component weights between .70 and .80, perceived tourist satisfaction consisted of 4 observable variables with component weights between .70 and .99, and destination loyalty consisted of 2 observable variables with component weights between .83 and .94. The structural equation model according to hypothesis, this research aimed to examine structural equation model (SEM). The result reveal that the structural equation model (Modified Model) was congruent with the empirical data after the adjustment. The analysis results of the model of destination loyalty for yacht tourists who experience in Phuket Thailand indicate a good fit: chi-square statistic (χ2) of the structural relationship model = 104.055, degrees of freedom (df) = 135.0, P-value = 0.01, ratio between chi-square value and number of degrees of freedom (χ2/df) = 1.143, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.998, and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.018. Finally, this study proposed a guideline for developing marketing strategies for yacht tourists in Phuket that should focus on. The analysis consists of 3 issues: 1) marina attributes: recommended to enhance the marina facilities to meet contemporary standards, ensure security and comply with international regulations to satisfy the demands of tourists. 2) Phuket destination image: highlighting Phuket's excellent tourism image and distinctiveness through a variety of marketing communication channels, both online and offline, develop and improve the standard of tourist attractions to ensure that they are distinctive and unique. 3) tourists' perceived value: government and private sectors involved in yacht tourism to inspire confidence in potential visitors, differentiate Phuket from other yachting destinations and create a unique identity that appeals to a wider range of vacationers. Therefore, developing effective products and services will increase made decision-making the likelihood of positive word-of-mouth to intention to recommend and intention to revisit in create destination loyalty in Phuket as a yacht destination. 
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    A structural equation model of critical thinking, problem-solving and leadership of air purser for premium airlines in Thailand
    Nuttapun Poomthan; Chokechai Suveatwatanakul (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)
    The objectives of this research were to study and verify structural equation modeling of critical thinking, problem-solving, and leadership of air purser. The sample group comprised of premium airline’ air pursers. The multiple variables were 10-20 times of observed variables. Since there were 12 observed variables in this research, the sample group size was determined as 20 times of observed variables. Therefore, the appropriate sample size group was at 240 cases. The research tool was closed-ended questions relevant to critical thinking, problem-solving, and leadership. Besides, the descriptive statistics were applied for data analysis. The SPSS was employed for analysis. The inferential statistics was applied with AMOS to investigate affirmative components and verify structural equation modeling of critical thinking, problem-solving, and leadership of air purser. The variables included: independent variable was critical thinking; mediating variable was problem-solving and dependent variable leadership.         The finding proved that a model of the structure of critical thinking, problem-solving, and leadership of air purser was consistent with empirical data. The results of the model fit showed the goodness of fit statistic criteria and indicated that the modification of the structural model is per the program recommendations and follows the significance indices of x2/df = 2.373, df = 41, P = 0.000, GFI = 0.939, AGFI =0.884, CFI =0.965, NFI = 0.941, RMR = 0.011, RMSEA = 0.076. This indicated that the model of critical thinking and problem-solving was in conjunction with the leadership of the air purser; the five factors of critical thinking consist of interpretation, analysis of information, evaluation of argument, explanation, and inference, whereas three factors of problem-solving are comprised of approach and avoidance style, personal control, and self-efficacy. Both models had an impact on the outcome of the four components of the leadership of the air purser. The result implied that air pursers with evaluation of arguments to evaluate claims and evaluate the credibility of statements or other representations as explanations or descriptions of an individual's perspective, knowledge or attitude to consider the conclusion could support opportunities to enhance the individuals’ higher-order thinking skills and affect problem-solving ability and working performance. Furthermore, the self-efficacy of air pursers who had inner confidence, trust, and consciousness with awareness of their own ability while overcoming issues or coping with challenging circumstances efficiently was positively associated with managing efforts and behavioral outcomes of effective leadership. Besides, the balancing process of leadership to acquire information, understand and make decisions based on that reasonable knowledge without regard to personal preferences by adopting an attentive and non-judgmental attitude can result in leadership skills. Moreover, air pursers who made decisions on matters considered beneficial to the airline, colleagues, and passengers, hold positions at work and decided to solve problems with confidence; as a result, leader's actions driven by their own personal values and beliefs, trust of followers and a relative collaboration with them to cooperate and work productively were developed, and led others in contributing to their work toward the accomplishment of specific goals in a specific situation or organizational goal.
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    A structural equation model of flight pursers leadership, cabin crew experience and cabin crew engagement : a perspective of a full-service airline in Thailand
    Sutisa Kaewpoo; Chokechai Suveatwatanakul (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)
    Employee engagement is generally acknowledged as a critical component, and most businesses place a high value on nurturing it as a means of contributing to their organizations’ overall success in Thailand, where the leader is also accountable for providing pleasant employee experiences to increase their employee engagement. The purpose of this study was to enhance cabin crew engagement in the context of a full-service airline in Thailand. The research findings may benefit a full-service airline in Thailand comprehend the suitable flight purser characteristics that influence the cabin crew experience, resulting in increased cabin crew engagement. The study objectives were aimed to 1) investigate the construct of flight pursers leadership characteristics, cabin crew experience, and cabin crew engagement of a full-service airline in Thailand. 2) create the structure model of flight pursers leadership characteristics, cabin crew experience, and cabin crew engagement of a full-service airline in Thailand. 3) test the structure model of flight pursers leadership characteristics, cabin crew experience, and cabin crew engagement of a full-service airline in Thailand consistent with empirical data. The research employed a quantitative method with structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine flight purser leadership, cabin crew experience, and cabin crew engagement in a full-service airline in Thailand. The sample group consisted of cabin crew members operating for a full-service airline in Thailand with a minimum of one year of work experience. Following the observable variable and following the rule of thumb, the size of the sample group will be determined by applying either 10 subjects per variable or 20 subjects per variable. There were at least 120 participants in the sample group. The questionnaire functioned as a survey tool. Composed and delivered to the participants were closed-ended questions regarding flight purser leadership, cabin crew experience, and cabin crew. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was being used to analyze questionnaire data to determine the construct validity of the latent variable. The results demonstrated that 1) the study of three latent variables consisting of variables of flight pursers leadership, cabin crew experience, and variable of cabin crew engagement, each component of the measurement model had the appropriate criteria which could be used to analyze the structural equation model (SEM). The reason was that the factor loading was from 0.4 upwards with statistical significance. 2) according to the first research aim, the structure of three latent variables was confirmed, and all latent variables were used to create a structural equation model based on the conceptual framework established through variable extraction. 3) the structural equation model of flight pursers leadership characteristics, cabin crew experience, and cabin crew engagement of a full-service airline in Thailand is consistent with the empirical data. In order to enhance cabin crew engagement in the context of a full-service airline in Thailand, it is recommended to develop an absorption facet among cabin crew, which is the most statistically significant aspect of cabin crew engagement. The airline may consider having flight pursers demonstrate gratitude for good relationships with colleagues; providing the guidance of clear working procedures to cabin crew; providing assistance during work; and also, the airline may consider providing flight pursers the independence to solve problems on their own while performing duties. Apart from that, the airline may emphasize vigor, dedication, and increased job performance, respectively. However, the research was limited primarily by the data sample being collected from a single airline. It might be considered in researching a large number of cabin crew in Thailand’s full-service airlines as well as a variety of other types of airlines, such as low-cost carriers.
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    The structural equation modeling of Thai domestic tourists, destination loyalty on Chiang Mai as a religious tourism destination
    Waret Ruttanavisanon; Charoenchai Agmapisarn (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)
    Chiang Mai is the most popular destination in Thailand for religious tourism, which is a special form of tourism that caters to individuals traveling to religion-themed tourist destinations for religious and/or recreational purposes. The growth of religious tourism is inextricably linked to the worldwide increase in spiritual journeys by individuals of all ages, cultures, and religions. Religious destinations are places of development, commitment, and vitality that often attract attention owing to their emotional significance. This research investigates the destination loyalty of tourists through their emotional connections to a place, emotional solidarity with the locals, and risk perception. Data were collected from 543 Thai tourists who visited temples in Chiang Mai. Results show that the place attachment of tourists has a direct influence on their emotional solidarity. In addition, the emotional solidarity of tourists with the locals is a significant predictor of their destination loyalty. Meanwhile, their emotional solidarity mediates the relationship between their place attachment and destination loyalty. The risk perception of these tourists during the COVID-19 pandemic highlights the insignificance of the moderating effects of their emotional solidarity and destination loyalty. Several managerial implications for destination management organizations are also provided.