- ItemTHE EFFECTS OF ICT/E-GOVERNMENT ON MIGRANT WORKERS' REMITTANCE INFLOWS IN BANGLADESH: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY(National Institute of Development Administration, 3/6/2023) Anchana NaRanong; อัญชนา ณ ระนอง; National Institute of Development Administration. School of Public AdministrationMigrant workers’ remittance is one of the most important sources of foreign currency and it promotes economic growth and addresses the unemployment issues of developing countries like Bangladesh. This research has explored and examined the effects of the use of ICT/e-Government measures along with some other significant socioeconomic and political factors on remittance inflows. So far, the effects of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and e-Government measures on remittance inflows have not been explored adequately in the case of Bangladesh. The literature review reports that there are direct and indirect effects of the use of ICT/e-Government along with the unemployment rate, the inflation rate, institutional quality, the number of recruiting agencies, the number of banks and financial institutions, financial inclusion and financial development, remittance transaction cost, cash incentives and the use of formal channels, as well as the currency exchange rate. On the other hand, the ICT-driven recruitment process and recruitment cost, along with the National ICT Policy and Overseas Employment Policy may also play roles in remittance inflows. The effects of ICT/e-Government measures along with other factors have been examined using a mixed methods (MM) approach. A survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire with a sampling unit organizations and having sample size of 369; sample size was determined using Yamane’s formula and the stratified sampling technique was adopted. After data examination, a total of 336 valid samples were used for SEM analysis. AMOS software was employed for the quantitative analysis of the survey data. Moreover, secondary data from the World Bank and other institutions were collected for regression analyses through the use of model equations and using SPSS. A total of 12 persons involved in 12 different organizations were interviewed to collect qualitative data for the thematic analysis; the analysis was conducted using NVIVO. After testing the hypotheses, validity, and reliability, and after triangulation of quantitative and qualitative findings, it has been found that the use of ICT/e-Government measures along with some other factors has a significant positive effect on the remittance inflows of Bangladesh. Nonetheless, the effects of the number of recruiting agencies, remittance transaction cost, the recruitment process and recruitment cost on the remittance inflows have not matched with the research hypotheses. This research concludes with a set of recommendations suggesting policy initiatives to reduce remittance transaction cost and recruitment cost by using ICT/e-Government measures effectively, by skill development measures and through bilateral agreements; these initiatives would help to increase remittance inflows.
- ItemFactors Affecting Substance Abuse Risk Behaviors of Undergraduate Students at One of the Universities in the Three Southern Border Provinces(National Institute of Development Administration, 7/1/2023) Ratiporn Teungfung; รติพร ถึงฝั่ง; National Institute of Development Administration. Graduate School of Social Development and Management StrategyThe objectives of this research were 1) To study the level of Substance Abuse risk behavior of undergraduate students at one of the universities in the three southern border provinces 2) To study the factors affecting of undergraduate students at one of the universities in the three southern border provinces. The sample group was 381 students. Data were collected through questionnaires. The statistics used in the analysis were percentage, mean, standard deviation and multiple regression analysis. The results of the study revealed that their risk behaviors for substance abuse were at low level. The influencing variables that able to predict substance abuse risk behaviors were family factors (β = - 0.209), peer group factors (β = - 0.484) and community factors (β = - 0.105). All three variables were accountable for predicting substance abuse risk behaviors account for 48.0 percent (Adjust R' = .480). The peer group factor is a factor that has a strong influence in reducing the incidence of risk behaviors. Therefore, the awareness on how to select friends among students should then be enhanced. Moreover, the other additional skills also should be promoted, such as life skills, refusal skills, stress management, critical of which can be utilized to effectively address issues and refrain from harmful actions that would worsen society's problems.
- ItemGUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF AN ABANDONED AREA BENEATH AN EXPRESS WAY: A CASE STUDY OF LAN KILA PHAT 2(National Institute of Development Administration, 7/1/2023) Awae Masae; อาแว มะแส; National Institute of Development Administration. Graduate School of Social Development and Management StrategyBangkok metropolitan has various empty spaces under the expressways which are mostly adjacent to urban slum communities, abandoned with problems, and waiting to be improved for utilization. In order to sustainably utilize the area, the surrounding communities should participate actively in the development process. This study aimed to investigate: (1) problems of abandoned areas under the expressways and their effects on the residents living near the Lan Kila Phat 2; (2) the development process of transforming the abandoned area under the expressway to a sports ground appropriated for the urban community context; and (3) roles of relevant organizations in supporting the development of the abandoned area under the expressway to be Lan Kila Phat 2. The research operation followed the qualitative research methodology. Data were collected by means of in-depth interview with 15 key informants who were involved in the development of Lan Kila Phat 2. Results revealed as follows: (1) prior to the development of the area to become Lan Kila Phat 2, residents of nearby communities were affected by an unsafe and unpleasant environment resulted from the abandonment of the area; (2) the development process of Lan Kila Phat 2 focused on participation of members of nearby communities in various steps corresponding to the bottom-up development approach, which includes decision-making, designing and renovating the area, promoting the use of space, as well as forming a working committee to be a supporting mechanism for the long-term participatory management of the area; and (3) the development process of transforming an abandoned area under the expressway to be Lan Kila Phat 2 was supported by various relevant organizations including the Expressway Authority of Thailand (EXAT), which provided the area under the expressway to the community; Department of the Royal Secretariat, which helped pushing the request to utilize space, crowdfunding for construction, and encouraging the community to participate in the area management; and the Arsom Silp Institute of the Arts and Shama SoEn, which created a participatory design and activities to promote the use of space with the community. In addition, the roles of these organizations empower the community to develop their potentials and created a sense of belonging and a truly community-driven development, which resulted in the outcomes of the participatory process using a community-based development mechanism for sustainable development.
- ItemRESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF INFORMATION ECOLOGICAL IMBALANCE ON ELDERLY USER’S USE BEHAVIOR OF G2C E-GOVERNMENT(National Institute of Development Administration, 3/6/2023) Chih - Hung Chen; Chih - Hung Chen; National Institute of Development Administration. International College,The theory of information ecology is a new subject which analyzes the imbalance in supply chain information management by combining the theory of supply chain management, and puts forward corresponding countermeasures from the perspective of information ecosystem balance. In fact, no matter how advanced the information technology is, the premise of its existence is to serve mankind. In society, there is a group of people that can't be ignored - the elderly. When advanced technology no longer serves the elderly, they are frequently labeled as "refugees on the Internet" and "islands of information". In the special time interval of the global COVID-19 epidemic, this situation is getting even worse. Then what is the reason? That's exactly the theme of this paper, including the impact of information ecological imbalance on the willingness of the elderly to learn information technology, and the impact on the use behavior of G2C elderly users.
- ItemCHALLENGES AND COPING STRATEGIES FOR INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMATION OF CHINA'S THIRD FRONT RESOURCE-RICH CITIES IN THE VICISSITUDE---PANZHIHUA CITY AS TYPICAL CASE(National Institute of Development Administration, 16/8/2024) Yu-Hsiu Lee; Yu-Hsiu Lee; National Institute of Development Administration. International College,China’s Third-front Construction was an immense movement which had a substantial influence on the country. The movement had two significant impacts on China, firstly, it improved the strategic industrial structure; secondly, it enhanced the national defense industries. However, the decline of Third-front Enterprises and Third-front Resource-based Cities (RBCs) was due not only to economic causes but also political causes. Through a case study of a typical Third-front RBC, Panzhihua City, Sichuan Province, which is contrasted with another typical Third-front RBC, Liupanshui City, Guizhou Province, that includes a review of the government publications, 17 in-depth interviews, and 331 questionnaires, it was found that there were two structural problems encountered in the transformation of Third-front RBCs, namely: the locational disadvantage resulting from locating industry in remote areas and the market disadvantage caused by institutional issues. An original feature of this study is it includes an analysis from the perspective of traditional Chinese philosophy, and on this basis proposes a series of countermeasures to surmount the challenges faced by Third-front RBCs, proposing the overall strategy of “going out and bringing in” and the specific strategies of “complementation between rigidity and flexibility,” “integration between interior and exterior,” and “interrelation between mobility and immobility.”
- ItemThe Legal Problems in Real-Estate Compensation Determination According to Expropriation and Acquisition of Immovable Property Act, B.E. 2562 (2019)(National Institute of Development Administration, 7/1/2023) Bajrawan Nuchprayool; พัชรวรรณ นุชประยูร; National Institute of Development Administration. The Graduate School of LawThe aim of this thesis is to study the rules for determining compensation for expropriated immovable properties under the Expropriation and Acquisition of Immovable Property Act, B.E. 2562 (2019), which serves as current legislation common law on expropriation by studying the concept of property rights, the principles of public service delivery, and the process of expropriation in order to search for appropriate legal rules to find solutions for unjust and non-coverage damages regarding determining compensation, in addition to studying some aspects of foreign law concerning expropriation and comparative law thereof. The main issues of this thesis are to conduct research on determining compensation for expropriated immovable properties, determining compensation for plants and their plant products, and determining compensation for any properties affected by expropriation despite the fact that such properties are not expropriated through documented research study and collection of information, whether from the previous or current Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand, prescribed expropriated immovable properties and determining compensation, Immovable Property Expropriation Act, B.E. 2530 (1987) and Expropriation and Acquisition of Immovable Property Act, B.E. 2562 (2019) as well as judgments of the Supreme Court, Decisions of the Supreme Administrative Court and relevant theses and textbooks. As a result, in order to determine the appropriate and just compensation, either the compensation for immovable properties or the compensation for other properties, including privileges that surrender may lose due to expropriation. The findings revealed that government agencies are still unable to exercise proper discretion in determining compensation for expropriation. The findings also revealed that there is no legal certainty of rules for some damages or no rules exist at all. As strange as it may seem, no coherent rules for determining compensation for expropriation have been developed, and determining the damage value pragmatically is impossible. Consequently, the author wishes to propose and develop concepts for determining compensation for expropriation in order to meet the criteria of just compensation for people in expropriation cases in accordance with the actual spirit of the law of expropriation and consistent with the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand.