|dc.description.abstract||This study aims to study and analyze the implementation of the SDG 12, Target 12.5 under the Thailand context and the waste management through 3Rs, using the situation in Pathum Thani Province as a case study, in order to find out challenges and obstacles of the problem and to propose recommendations for the achievement of the SDG 12, Target 12.5. This study is a qualitative research approach, under which the data structure has been acquired from interviews of relevant stakeholders involving in the SDG 12, Target 12.5 based on the Thailand context and the waste management through 3Rs, being in line with the national plan and policy on the waste management. Besides, the non-participation observation method and the more research on relevant academic papers have been included, together with the application of the Balanced Scorecard technique was applied for the analysis Evaluation indicators were including Effectiveness, Stakeholders, Management and learning and development from the analysis of both internal and external factors, or the analysis of strength, weakness, opportunity and threat (SWOT Analysis).
The study has shown that the application of the Balanced Scorecard through the area of effectiveness of the SDG 12, Target 12.5, and the waste management through 3Rs in Thailand, in both the national and the provincial levels, have been successful to a certain extent, as data have shown that more waste has been recycled as renewed and usable products. However, such the actions are recommended to be further expanded in each targeted area. Through the area of stakeholders, this research has found that the participation of stakeholders has been incomprehensive because only a group of representatives from relevant government agencies has held meetings to discuss plans to achieve the SDG 12, Target 12.5, and the waste management through 3Rs and only people who are stakeholders in some targeted areas or communities have been invited to participate in the government plans on the SDG 12, Target 12.5, and the waste management through 3Rs. On the other hand, the private sector has been found, not having directly participated in the government plans on the SDG 12, Target 12.5, but following the policy of their companies’ executives in launching their own waste recycling projects instead, backed by sound cooperation from their staff members and their companies’ practical regulatory measures. Through the management area, this study has found that Thailand has already implemented the policy on the waste management through 3Rs, under which a move on promoting the reduction and the separation of different types of waste for the recycling and reuse purpose of part of the wastes has been launched in the provincial and community levels. In the case of Pathum Thani, the province has realized to separate daily waste from upstream sources, established a provincial waste bank and campaigned on the proper waste management in local residential communities, government agencies and educational institutes. Through the learning and development from the analysis of both internal and external factors, this research has found operational personnel and other stakeholders of relevant agencies in the provincial and the community levels, including local administrative bodies, have had more development in the waste management through 3Rs, thanks to proper knowledge and information provided to them by the relevant agencies. However, this study revealed that the more development in terms of proper knowledge on the waste management through 3Rs has not yet resulted in the change of people’s behavior in the reduction and the separation of waste from such an upstream source as local households. This weak point has deferred the whole nation from becoming fully successful in the waste management through 3Rs. This research has shown that internal factors which should support the achievement of the SDG 12, Target 12.5 under the Thai context and the waste management through 3Rs include a systematic management style, a practical and concrete implementation of a set policy and a provision of proper knowledge and information to people and operational personnel who are stakeholders. For external factors, they include laws and regulations that could be enforced to directly support the achievement of the SDG 12, Target 12.5 under the Thai context and the waste management through 3Rs and updated reports submitted to the United Nations for regular monitoring and following up of developments.
This paper recommends that the Thai government should promulgated and enforced laws and regulations which could directly support the waste management through 3Rs. While the government should promote and support integrated actions of the public and private sectors, as well as the general public towards the goal and developing a common standard nationwide on the data gathering of the amounts of waste in separate areas, the standard of which should comply with international standards. For the private sector, more social responsibility and accountability should be promoted and supported among business operators so that they would reduce unnecessary or hardly-decomposable packages or containers. Public campaigns should also be launched, including through business channels, to create awareness among consumers to reduce the use of hardly-decomposable materials and containers and to help separate their household waste as a change of their behaviors for better future from the upstream sources towardsa successful national outcome. ||en