- ItemThe effect of knowledge hiding on employee innovation performance of multinational corporations : based on team-member exchange and cultural intelligenceJin, Yanfang; Chen, Chih Hung (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)Economic globalization has become an irresistible trend in world economic development. Innovation is the primary driving force for national development and the decisive factor for the survival and development of enterprises, especially for multinational corporations. In the post-epidemic era, the turbulence and uncertainty of the world economy have further intensified. Economic globalization has suffered unprecedented damage. The trade friction between major countries escalates, and Chinese multinational companies face is great challenges. Therefore, improving the innovation of multinational companies effectively is an important way to enhance the core competitiveness of multinational companies. For the realization of the innovation performance of teams and organizations coming from individual innovation, multinational companies rely on employees with different cultures to improve their innovation performance. It is of great significance to study the ways to improve the innovation performance of employees to enhance the core competitiveness of multinational companies. Therefore, from the perspective of knowledge sharing, the current research mainly studies the improvement of employee innovation performance, ignoring the important premise of knowledge sharing -- employees decide to share their knowledge. Employees who are not motivated to share knowledge with their colleagues will hide their knowledge, leading to knowledge-hiding behaviors. Then the behaviors will reduce the social interaction between employees and their creativity, which has an impact on employees’ innovation behaviors and weakens the innovation performance of employees and the company. Accordingly, this study applies the social exchange theory to study the knowledge-hiding behaviors of employees who are working in multinational companies and studies the function mechanism of knowledge hiding on employee innovation performance. This study adopts the social exchange theory and the social classification theory to blend knowledge management and innovation. Meanwhile, this study, synthesizing literature research, questionnaire, and statistical analysis, using SPSS and MPLUS to analyze data and selecting 300 Chinese employees from the multinational companies as the research sample, study the function mechanism of knowledge hiding on employee innovation performance. Based on the exchange relationship of employees and the working characteristics of cross-culture, this study explores the mediating and moderating role of team-member exchange and cultural intelligence in the influence of knowledge hiding on the innovation performance of employees in multinational companies. The research hypothesis and the theoretical model are verified, have made up for defects of existing studies. This study discusses the improvement of innovation performance of employees from multinational companies, which is an innovative exploration in the field of knowledge management and innovation management. The research results provide theoretical support and guarantee for Chinese multinational companies to improve the innovation performance of their employees, bringing certain practical significance. This study effectively reveals the function mechanism of knowledge hiding on multinational employee innovation performance, constructs a research framework of knowledge hiding, team-member exchange, cultural intelligence and employee innovation performance of multinational companies, and provides theoretical support for the research of the relationship among variables. Empirical conclusions suggest that managers of multinational companies should specify effective human resource management and knowledge management strategies for employee knowledge hiding, to improve team-member exchange, reduce knowledge hiding, and ultimately improve employees’ innovation performance. The research conclusions have important theoretical and practical significance.
- ItemDoes an organizational doing good cause its employees to do good? The impact of employee-perceived CSR on organizational citizenship behaviorLi, Yingxia; Chen, Chih Hung (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)Since formally proposed, CSR has been the subject of debate and research, and has aroused the interest of scholars in management, sociology, strategy, law and other fields. More and more scholars believe companies should approach their business from a sustainable development perspective and support CSR activities. However, in China, companies do not actively participate in CSR, or have “hypocritical” motives to do so. The reason is not only because of lax external legal constraints and information asymmetry, but also because they do not have a comprehensive understanding of “what CSR brings to the organization” and “How to implement CSR effectively”. In terms of the CSR literature, scholars argue as as more companies engage in CSR activities, there is an urgent need to establish a research stream to explore the impact of CSR on employee behavior, performance, and productivity. Unfortunately, there are not so many CSR researches taking employees as the analysis unit. The knowledge about employees’ responses to CSR is still largely fragmented and lacks theoretical consolidation. Therefore, this study attempted to fill this gap. Based on stakeholder theory, social identity theory and social exchange theory, this study innovatively proposes a new comprehensive model to explore the mechanism of the influence of employee-perceived CSR on employee organizational citizenship behavior at the micro individual level through rigorous research design and standardized research methods. This study believes that if the underlying mechanism between CSR and organizational citizenship behavior is revealed, managers can adjust the organization’s CSR strategy accordingly to effectively implement CSR and embed CSR practices into organizational design and processes to advance the cause of CSR. This study argues that employee-perceived CSR includes three dimensions: perceived CSR altruism, perceived CSR execution and perceived CSR participation. It wants to verify three questions. (1) Whether perceived CSR altruism, perceived CSR execution and perceived CSR participation positively affect employee organizational citizenship behavior? (2) Whether perceived CSR altruism, perceived CSR execution and perceived CSR participation positively affects employee organizational citizenship behavior via the mediating role of organizational identification? (3) Whether organizational identification positively affects employe organizational citizenship behavior via the moderating role of perceived organizational support? Using 409 survey data from two regions with different levels of economic development in China, the conceptual model is tested by hierarchical regression analysis and SEM. Empirical results indicate that perceived CSR altruism, perceived CSR execution and perceived CSR participation all have positive impact on organizational citizenship behavior through the partial mediation of organizational identification, and perceived organizational support moderates the positive impact between organizational identification and organizational citizenship behavior. This study offers managerial implications. (1) Employee-perceived CSR includes perceived CSR execution, perceived CSR altruism and perceived CSR participation. Therefore, enterprises should design CSR programs in a manner that effectively promotes employees’ perception of the three dimensions. (2) CSR has a positive impact on organizational identification and organizational citizenship behavior. Therefore, CSR is worth investing in. Enterprises should integrate social responsibility into their development strategies. (3) Organizational identification is a bridge connecting perceived CSR and organizational citizenship behavior, so enterprises should pay attention to the cultivation of employee identification. (4) Enterprises should create a sense of organizational support and increasing the degree to which organizational identity positively affects organizational citizenship behavior. (5) To develop CSR, in addition to formulate CSR-related regulations, the government should publicize the positive role of CSR in the organization and stimulate the internal driving force of enterprises to fulfill CSR. This study contributes to the extant literature in multiple ways. First, it provides a more comprehensive perspective of individual perception and assessment of CSR by expanding the dimensions of employee-perceived CSR. Second, it offers a new conceptual model and explores why and how perceived CSR contributes to employee outcomes in the workplace, which not only responds to the call to explain why CSR impacts employee output , but also integrates and expands CSR research at the individual level, helping to bridge the micro-level research gap that has been criticized in the field of CSR research. Third, it discovers that perceived organizational support moderates the positive impact of organizational identification on organizational citizenship behavior, which better answers “how” and “under what conditions” CSR contributes to employee outcomes and advances the understanding of the psychological processes linking CSR to organizational citizenship behavior. Practically, based on an empirical survey of Chinese firms, this study proves that CSR can trigger employees’ organizational citizenship behavior, thereby inspire the CEO’s enthusiasm to implement CSR and promote the development of CSR in China. It also provides a theoretical and guiding model for companies to formulate, implement and disseminate CSR strategies, thereby optimizing the return on CSR investment. This study contributes to the extant literature in multiple ways. First, it provides a more comprehensive perspective of individual perception and assessment of CSR by expanding the dimensions of employee-perceived CSR. Second, it offers a new conceptual model and explores why and how perceived CSR contributes to employee outcomes in the workplace, which not only responds to the call to explain why CSR impacts employee output , but also integrates and expands CSR research at the individual level, helping to bridge the micro-level research gap that has been criticized in the field of CSR research. Third, it discovers that perceived organizational support moderates the positive impact of organizational identification on organizational citizenship behavior, which better answers “how” and “under what conditions” CSR contributes to employee outcomes and advances the understanding of the psychological processes linking CSR to organizational citizenship behavior. Practically, based on an empirical survey of Chinese firms, this study proves that CSR can trigger employees’ organizational citizenship behavior, thereby inspire the CEO’s enthusiasm to implement CSR and promote the development of CSR in China. It also provides a theoretical and guiding model for companies to formulate, implement and disseminate CSR strategies, thereby optimizing the return on CSR investment.
- ItemChallenges and coping strategies for industrial transformation of China's third front resource-rich cities in the Vicissitude-Panzhihua city as typical caseDai, Luyao; Lee, Yu-Hsiu (National Institute of Development Administration, 2019)China’s Third-front Construction was an immense movement which had a substantial influence on the country. The movement had two significant impacts on China, firstly, it improved the strategic industrial structure; secondly, it enhanced the national defense industries. However, the decline of Third-front Enterprises and Third-front Resource-based Cities (RBCs) was due not only to economic causes but also political causes. Through a case study of a typical Third-front RBC, Panzhihua City, Sichuan Province, which is contrasted with another typical Third-front RBC, Liupanshui City, Guizhou Province, that includes a review of the government publications, 17 in-depth interviews, and 331 questionnaires, it was found that there were two structural problems encountered in the transformation of Third-front RBCs, namely: the locational disadvantage resulting from locating industry in remote areas and the market disadvantage caused by institutional issues. An original feature of this study is it includes an analysis from the perspective of traditional Chinese philosophy, and on this basis proposes a series of countermeasures to surmount the challenges faced by Third-front RBCs, proposing the overall strategy of “going out and bringing in” and the specific strategies of “complementation between rigidity and flexibility,” “integration between interior and exterior,” and “interrelation between mobility and immobility.”
- ItemAcceptance of recruiting chatbots: an empirical study on the recruiters' perspectiveDrebert, Judith; Sid Suntrayuth (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)In economic history, there have always been changes and disruptions within market structures and established infrastructure. One eruptive technological development is the automation of business processes. Chatbots offer a way to automate processes in an interactive-laden way via dialogues with the human inquirer. The study at hand investigates factors influencing recruiter-sided chatbot acceptance within the recruiting process. The recruiting process step of candidate interviewing serves as a high-involvement use case for the target group of the quantitative survey: Participants are recruiters in human resource departments in companies from Germany (main focus), Austria and Switzerland with candidate interviews in their recruiting processes. The first chapter contains an introduction to the topic, states the objective of the study and shows the structure of the dissertation. In the second chapter, the recruiting process is being outlined and brought together with the aspect of digitization and automation before regarding the role of chatbots in recruiting. Acceptance research and the topic of chatbot acceptance are presented in the third chapter. The fourth chapter is about the formation of the research model: Based on research on acceptance and specifically the technology acceptance model (TAM), the Human-Robot Collaboration Model (HRCAM) is transformed into the novel Human-Chatbot Collaboration Model (HCCAM) for the non-physical case of chatbots and expanded via the chatbot-relevant constructs of perceived system transparency and inertia regarding chatbot technology. Main focus of the quantitative recruiter survey is the investigation of the antecedents of recruiting chatbot acceptance according to the HCCAM model, specifically regarding job-related automation concerns. It incorporates (1) the validated TAM2 (Venkatesh & Davis, 2000) items subjective norm, job relevance, result demonstrability, and output quality, (2) the validated TAM3 (Venkatesh & Bala, 2008) items self-efficacy, perceptions of external control, and chatbot anxiety, (3) the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) and technology affinity items as introduced by Bröhl et al. (2019), (4) perceived system transparency (e.g., Peters et al., 2020) as well as (5) inertia (e.g., Polites & Karahanna, 2012) items adapted from related literature. The fifth chapter is about the quantitative survey for assessing the factors related to recruiters’ chatbot acceptance presenting the methodological approach. Subsequently, the empirical study results are presented in the sixth chapter. Subjective norms and perceived usefulness are found as most relevant significant acceptance criteria for chatbots in recruiting. Overall, 13 significantly influencing factors are yielded, amongst them perceived system transparency and inertia. The dissertation concludes with a discussion of the findings, a display of the theoretical and practical contributions, a conclusion section, an examination of the limitations of the study, and an outlook on future research.
- ItemInfluencing factors of memorable tourism experience and behavioral intention: a study of Chinese tourists in ThailandLi, Renliang; Zhao, Xiushu (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)As the competition of destination is more and more severe, more attention is paid to providing memorable tourism experiences (MTEs) to tourist. Though existing literature has made certain achievements in exploring MTEs and influencing factors, there are still some research gaps and are listed as follows: 1) A consensus about the influencing factors of MTEs has not yet been reached. 2) Whether MTEs remains the best tool of behavior prediction in the future is yet to be verified. This research has three purposes: 1) To explore the influencing factors of MTEs; 2) To discuss how the influencing factors of MTEs affect behavioral intentions; 3) To examine the mediating effect of MTEs on influencing factors and behavioral intention. This study used a mixed research methods approach by collecting and analyzing both qualitative and quantitative data. First, this study generated and purified a scale through in-depth interviews (15 self-guided Chinese tourists) and summarization of relevant literature. Second, it refined and validated the scale through quantitative study. Taking 400 self-guided Chinese tourists to Thailand as samples, the quantitative study determines the influencing factor scale by using the software of SPSS and AMORS 24.0 to analyzing the reliability and validity, projects information, EFA and CFA. A hypothetical model of the relationship among MTEs influencing factors, MTEs and behavioral intentions was built based on CAB theory and planned behavior theory. Another 400 samples taking from self-guided Chinese tourists to Thailand were collected to conduct fitting evaluation and hypothesis verification in the following study. Then, based on CAB theory and planned behavior theory, a hypothetical model of the relationship was constructed among MTEs influencing factors, MTEs and behavioral intentions. The main conclusions obtained in the paper are as follows. 1) There are 7 influencing factors of MTEs: Infrastructure, Hospitality & Service, Physiography, Culture & Architecture, Activities & Events, Knowledge & Emotion, Social interaction, the first five factors among which describe the destination attributes, while the last two factors describe the tourists’ personal factors. 2) The influencing factors MTEs have positively effects on MTEs. 3) MTEs have significant positive effects on behavioral intention. 4) MTEs have a mediating effect between Inf, PH, CA, AE, KE, HS, SI and BI. The theoretical contribution of this research is mainly reflected in the following aspects : 1) Broadening the theoretical knowledge related to the influencing factors of MTEs. 2) Determining the relationship between the antecedents and consequences of MTEs, which is also the first attempt to integrate the influencing factors of MTEs, MTEs and behavioral intention into one model and test it empirically. 3) Expand the scope of sampling in tourism study. This paper conducted research on antecedents and consequences of MTEs by collecting data from self-guided Chinese tourists to Thailand. The focus of this group was new in tourism study. And the study also expands and subdivides the sample scope and enriches the connotation of tourism experience research. The practical significance of this study is mainly reflected as follows: 1) It is helpful for destination managers to pay attention to MTEs and adjust their tourism operation and management strategies; 2) Helping managers to better understand the influencing factors of MTEs; 3) Helping tourism practitioners to improve their management of tourism resources; 4) It is helpful for tourism practitioners to think innovatively. In addition, this study puts forward countermeasures and suggestions to improving the MTEs of tourist and promoting tourism experience management on four aspects: 1) Increase the investment in infrastructure to perfecting the tourism experience; 2) Optimize the industrial structure, highlighting cultural tourism projects and increasing marketing; 3) To remind the government pay more attention to the sustainable development and the protection of natural resources.
- ItemThe mechanism of Chinese-style fiscal decentralization on enterprise technological innovation: the moderation effect of the nature of property rightsVesarach Aumeboonsuke; Zhang, Hui (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)At present, China is moving towards an era of innovation driven development, and the dominant position of enterprise technology innovation is becoming increasingly prominent and important. Fiscal decentralization will affect the distribution of attention and efforts of local governments among multi task types, and affect the technological innovation of enterprises in their jurisdictions through local governments. It is an important institutional constraint on technological innovation of enterprises. However, the current research on the economic consequences of fiscal decentralization mainly focuses on the macro level, and does not include the impact of fiscal decentralization on enterprises, an important micro market subject, into the analytical framework. Any enterprise is embedded in a specific institutional environment. This study comprehensively uses the fiscal decentralization theory, the multi task principal-agent theory, the government intervention theory and the property rights theory to build a theoretical model of fiscal decentralization on the technological innovation behavior of micro enterprises in the three-tier principal agent analysis framework of the central government, local government and enterprises, which enriches the research prospect of enterprise technological innovation. This model focuses on depicting the intermediary mechanism between fiscal decentralization and enterprise technology innovation of local government innovation preference, namely fiscal decentralization (central local relationship) – local government innovation preference (local government behavior) – enterprise technology innovation (enterprise behavior). In addition, the model further introduces the nature of property rights (state-owned and private) as an adjusting variable to study the difference of intermediary effect of local government innovation preference in enterprises with different property rights. This paper takes A-share listed companies that were listed before the end of 2012 and regularly published annual financial reports between 2012 and 2020 as samples, and uses multiple regression method to empirically test the theoretical model. The empirical results show that: 1) Fiscal decentralization has a significant inhibitory effect on technological innovation of enterprises, which provides empirical evidence for the “decentralization inhibition theory” from the micro level. 2) Local government innovation preference has a significant negative intermediary effect between fiscal decentralization and technological innovation of enterprises. By increasing the relative incentive intensity of technological innovation, the central government has corrected the distortion of local governments' attention and effort level, and promoted them to change from “competition for growth” to “competition for innovation” However, the local government's mastery of innovation resources has led to the emergence of policy arbitrage, which has formed a “crowding out effect” on technological innovation of enterprises. 3) State owned property rights have significantly weakened the mediation effect of local governments' innovation preferences. As the core institutional arrangement of the socialist market economy system, state-owned enterprises have the advantages of both market and government economic coordination methods, and are more helpful than private enterprises in curbing or even eliminating the negative impact of local government innovation preferences on technological innovation of enterprise. The above empirical results provide evidence support for improving the technological innovation capability of enterprises from the perspective of improving the fiscal decentralization system and strengthening the reform of enterprise property rights system.