- ItemGreen business model of biomass very small power producersParon Vongchan; Chutarat Chompunth (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)This research aimed to study the green business guidelines from case studies of successful biomass energy businesses, the community impact from biomass energy business, and construct the Green Business Model of Biomass Very Small Power Producers (BVSPP). The methodology consisted of the mixed-methods sequential design by comparison with the findings of the study results from different information sources such as four case studies of successful biomass energy businesses, impact on communities living within the three kms radius of the biomass power plants, assessment results of the (Draft) Green Business Model of BVSPP from nine assessors, as well as recommendations from the key informants. Then, analyzing the data by comparing the study results from three different sources to confirm the Green Business Model of BVSPP. The findings revealed that the concept of green business model of BVSPP consisted of four key aspects namely 1) Stakeholders aspect including BVSPP, Communities, Government, and NGOs 2) Sustainability management aspect including economic management, social management, and environmental management 3) Effectiveness aspect including Social Return on Investment (SROI) and 4) Learning and growth aspect including training/learning and innovation/technology. Biomass Very Small Power Producers could deploy the concept of this model for enhancing the performance of the biomass power plant business operation to generate SROI for all stakeholders in the biomass energy supply chain.
- ItemDevelopment of appropriate indicators of eco industrial town in the Thai contextSamran Sonpuing; Chamlong Poboon (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)Eco Industrial Town (EIT) is one of important development policies of Thailand. An overlying goal of the operations under the EIT policy is to pave the way to create a happy industrial society. Indicators are primarily tool used for measuring the progress of EIT implementation in Thailand. Due to the weaknesses of the available indicators, together with challenges from emerging sustainability concepts and trends, the EIT framework and relevant indicators need to be further revisited and developed to be able to cope with the threats and challenges. Objectives of the research are: 1) to study the framework of the eco industrial town and its indicators in the Thailand context, 2) to develop the framework of eco industrial town and the appropriate indicators in the Thailand context primarily based on perspectives of the physical, the economy, the environmental, the social, the management, and others, 3) to confirm the suitability of framework of eco industrial town and the appropriate indicators in the Thailand context primarily based on perspectives of the physical, the economy, the environmental, the social, the management and others. Methodology used in the research comprised of 1) the documentary research on ground concepts of relevant concepts -- sustainable development, related current trends and movements that challenge to the EIT implementation in Thailand, 2) extensive feedback of the 30 experts in the field of eco industrial town and indicator development, and 3) feedback of the 62 relevant stakeholders to the EIT implementation. The research results provide a new framework which the continuous development perspective was added to the first five perspectives, 13 dimensions, 18 indicators are added to the existing framework of EIT of Thailand. The documentary research provide a new perspective (continuous development perspective) to the first five perspectives, then totally 33 dimensions, and 59 indicators were constructed consecutively. The extensive feedback of the 30 experts in the field of eco industrial town and indicator development were obtained from 2 rounds of questionnaire submitted to them. The experts' feedback are inputs for revising the EIT framework and its indicators. The final stage are asking for feedback from 62 relevant stakeholders of the EIT implementation in the target EITs of Thailand that used for revising of the EIT framework and its indicators. The final version of EIT framework and its indicators consists of 6 perspectives, 32 dimensions and 59 indicators. Therefore, the final version of EIT framework and its indicators are appropriate for using to evaluate and measure progress of EIT implementation of each area of target EITs in Thailand to check whether how well they do against the required criteria of EIT. Key recommendations for policy makers and EIT implementers are 1) support annual budget, handbook of EIT implementation, and training regarding the required criteria of indicators to stakeholders of the EITs regularly and continually, 2) revise the EIT framework and its indicators to keep up with the situation of global trends, 3) communicate and stimulate stakeholders of the EIT, especially communities and manufacturing plants to fully understand and recognize the purposes of EIT implementation, benefits from implementing EIT, and well-being of residents after implementing and receiving registration from Department of Industrial Work.
- ItemUtilization of sugarcane bagasse by-product for Polyhydroxyalkanoates production by Bacillus subtilisJittaporn Popanyasak; Tawadchai Suppadit (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) is a by-product obtained from sugar processing that have abundance in Thailand. In order to manage this agricultural waste, it has been applied in numerous applications, especially fuel for power generation and producing value products. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of sugarcane bagasse for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production by Bacillus subtilis TISTR 008. The SCB was treated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide before introducing hydrolysis process. The effect of sulfuric acid concentration and reaction time on hydrolysis were evaluated. The SCB hydrolysate obtained from 0.5% (v/v) for 120 min showed the highest reducing sugar concentration. A one factor at a time experiment was employed to optimize nitrogen sources leading to the highest PHAs concentration. The result found that B. subtilis TISTR 008 could accumulate the maximum PHAs when using urea as nitrogen source. A full factorial design was used to optimize the SCB hydrolysate concentration and fermentation time for PHAs improvement. The use of hydrolysate concentration and fermentation time at 30% v/v and 48 hours resulted in the maximum PHAs accumulation of 0.33 g/L and dry cell weight of 0.98 g/L. The chemical characteristics of the extracted PHAs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The spectral confirmed that the PHAs produced from B. subtilis TISTR 008 using SCB hydrolysate as substrate was PHB.
- ItemLesson learned from public participation process in strategic environmental assessment of electrical power development in Southern ThailandNalinee Hajima; Chamlong Poboon (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)This research aims to study people participation process for the Strategic Environment Assessment (SEA) of electrical power development of southern Thailand as well as the benefits, problems and obstacles in order to have lesson learned from the participation process. This research is a qualitative research in which the data were collected by semi-structured interview with the stakeholders of the SEA study. There were 40 informants from 4 groups which are 1) local people, 2) relevant agencies, 3) NGOs, academia and mass media and 4) the SEA study team and the project supervisory committee. In addition, the data were collected from observations, focus group discussions and field trips in the target areas and the study of the document related to the project. The analysis of data adopted the framework of CIPP-I model of assessment which considering 5 main components that are context, input, process, product and impact. The results of the study revealed that 1) Context: The policy on electrical power development according to Thailand power development plan of 2015-2036 (PDP 2015) emphasized on electrical security by diversifying fuels in electrical generation to reduce the relying up on natural gas by increasing the proportion of coal. This caused conflict in the areas of coal-fired power plant projects which lead to the movement of NGOs, and those who were affected by the projects. Another important context is the law concerning the environmental assessment of Thailand which are in need for the reform to enable the effectiveness and more acceptable participation process. 2) Input: In the beginning, most people who participated in the participation process had a low level of understanding and negative attitude towards the project but at the end they had better understanding and attitude. The persons responsible for the people participation process were qualified and accepted by the participants. 3) Process: The participation process in overall was effective. The level of participation was at joint planning level. The participants were able to reach the data and information from many channels. The participation process started quite early and covered the stakeholders well. The study team was sincere and the process was always transparent. 4) Product: The majority of the informants accepted the outcome of the participation process and the results of the SEA study, and 5) Impact: The project was able to reduce conflicts between the participants and created a better atmosphere as the trust to the project was increasing. As a result, the relationship between the stakeholders has become more positive.
- ItemProjection of the economic impacts of changes in Thailand's transparency and associated change in co2 emissionsRapee Pholpanich; Sompote Kunnoot (National Institute of Development Administration, 2019)Economic growth is driven by the growth of capital in the neoclassical tradition. Likewise, economic growth is compromised by the leakage of potential capital growth. The factors in economic growth are the accumulation of 4 types of capital, comprising physical capital, human capital, natural capital, and social capital. They are complementary. The deficiency of any one can compromise economic growth and erode the supply of other types of capital. The deterioration of the social capital that brings corruption is an underlying factor for the drag on economic growth, loss of social welfare, underdeveloped political practice, and rapid depreciation of natural capital. In contrast, healthy economic growth is achieved by an increase in the supply of social capital, which uses transparency as a representation of social capital, adopting Thailand’s corruption perceptions index (CPI). This study employs the computable general equilibrium (CGE) models in ORANI (Dixon et al., 1982). The 2010 edition of the 180 sectors of Thailand’s input-output table by the Office of National Economic and Social Development Council (NESDC) was used as the CGE model database. The CGE system consists of 135,202 variables and 133,940 equations, which offer 1,262 structural exogenous variables. The growth of the investment ratio is represented by the CPI growth rate that is applied to the CGE system for the projection of economic impacts, structural change, and associated changes in CO2 emissions. Economic impact is measured by the growth of real GDP. Structural change is measured by the output growth of sectors that received high and low benefits, and environmental change is measured by petroleum consumption, efficiency of petroleum usage, and carbon emissions. In this study, the projection has two cases. Case 1 (base case) did not apply the growth of the CPI score that fixed an 8 percent investment rate. Case 2 applied investment ratio growth with the growth of the CPI score to compare two test scenarios. Scenario 1 for case 2 was given an 8 percent investment rate and a 0.94 percent per year investment ratio growth for all sectors. In scenario 2 for case 2, the scenario of the increased transparency in the petroleum sector was given an 8 percent investment rate, a 0.97 percent per year investment ratio growth for the petroleum sector, and a 0.94 percent per year investment ratio growth for the rest of the sectors. The 30-year CGE model projection results demonstrate that transparency affects efficient investment, which leads to a prosperous economy. According to the comparison between Case 1 and 2, the application of the investment ratio growth with the growth of the CPI score produced a real GDP growth index that exceeded the base case from 239 to 308. This real GDP growth index has been apparently different over 20 years. The higher CPI score leads to expanding the investment due to rich social capital or transparency and trust. This trust creates investment to replace the depreciation of capital and new investment of capital stock by investment ratio growth. In addition, in scenario 2 for case 2, the Integrity Pact, a tool for increasing the CPI score, results that changes in the petroleum sector, such as increased capital, a decline in the price of petroleum, and it has positively affected the real GDP growth index. In the 30-year prediction, a strong effect was found in the transport and petroleum sectors. In terms of the resulting consequences, policymakers should have a policy not only to audit and monitor the government’s administration for increased transparency and trust, but also the energy and environment conservation policies to support economic growth.
- ItemSafety, occupational health and environmental management system model for small and medium-sized enterprisesThepporn Jaroenroy; Chutarat Chompunth (National Institute of Development Administration, 2019)The objectives of this study are: 1) to identify the occupational health risks, environmental aspects, motivators, and barriers to adopting the integrated safety, occupational health and environmental management system in small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises of metal products in Thailand; 2) to identify the factors that related the adoption of the integrated safety, occupational health and environmental management system in SMEs; 3) to design an integrated safety, occupational health and environmental management system from the integration of ISO 14001: 2015, OHSAS 18001: 2007 and ISO 45001: 2018 for small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises of metal products in Thailand: and 4) to trial an integrated safety, occupational health and environmental management system in pilot SMEs and evaluate the implementing results. Qualitative and Quantitative were used to answer the objectives of the study. For the qualitative study, the literature review on the safety and environmental management in SMEs was conducted to understand how SMEs manage their risks and environmental aspects. Existing international standards for occupational health and safety, environmental management system, motivators and barriers for SMEs in the implementation of occupational health and safety, environmental management system were also studied. Expert in-depth interviews were conducted to provide points of view of professionals. The content analysis was used to analyze data obtained from the expert in-depth interviews. All data were gathered to develop the new integrated management system. Focus group discussion was conducted to verify the integrated management system. The new integrated management system was implemented in pilot SMEs and evaluated by using the balanced scorecard. Meanwhile, the quantitative method was used to collect the data by questionnaire. The quantitative analysis included descriptive statistics, Pearson chi-square, and Pearson correlation coefficients. These methods were used to examine the relationship between variables of the interest of SMEs in the adoption of the integrated safety, occupational health and environmental management system. The concept of the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle is strongly recommended for the new integrated management system for SMEs in consideration of the limitations of SMEs. The implementing result with the evaluation by using the balanced scorecard shows that the integrated safety, occupational health and environmental management system can elevate the safety, occupational health and environmental performance of the three voluntary SMEs. All three SMEs are satisfied with the results of the implementation. The unsafe machine, physical hazard and chemical hazard are major causes of occupational health problem in SMEs. Additionally, waste, noise and wastewater are the significant aspects that most SMEs could face. The limitations in term of human resources, budget, time and lack of information related to health, safety and environment management system are the main barriers to the management system adoption in SMEs. On the other hand, the rapid decision making by the owner-manager, the good relationship between employer and employees, flat organization and the quick communication, as well as the characteristics of SMEs, are good motivators that drive them to implement the safety, occupational health and environmental management system. The only factor that relates to the interest of the integrated safety, occupational health and environmental management system implementing in SMEs is Safety, Health and Environmental (SHE) policy. The research suggested that the commitment of the top management is the success factor for the integrated management system implementation in SMEs with the essential budget. The consultant who works with SMEs should consider the limitation of SMEs and propose the appropriate implementation timeline. The government sector should encourage SMEs by providing financial support, consultancy program and surveillance audit program to ensure the success of the management system implementation of SMEs that can help reduce the injury, illness and accident rates and prevent the environmental problems of SMEs in Thailand.