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- ItemAnalysis of appropriate stakeholder model and critical success factors (CSFs) of public-private partnership (PPP) investment program: empirical evidence of infrastructure development in Thailand(National Institute of Development Administration, 2022) Supachai Rakpanitmanee; Pairote PathranarakulThis dissertation aims to review the concepts and theories relating to PPP interventions, exploring PPP practices at both international and country (Thailand) levels as well as identifying their strengths and limitations. The targeted findings will focus on the strategic stakeholder institutional, policy and operational regulating frameworks with their critical success factors (CSFs) for PPP implementation in Thailand. Public end users’ participation as well as sustainable development goals (SDGs) and specific stakeholders’ success criteria (SC) will also be taken into account in the explored stakeholder model. The researcher utilized the sequential mixed method research, using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The qualitative method was firstly applied to validate the proposed hypotheses derived from literature review stage, and the quantitative method was subsequently applied to confirm the reliability of research findings. Based on literature review, qualitative analysis involving executive interviews, and quantitative analysis involving survey of operational staffs, the research findings recommend a new Public-Private-People Partnership (PPPP) strategic stakeholder institutional model-along with its success goal, success criteria, and critical success factors-to be both policy and operation regulating frameworks that reinforce the merit of PPP practice, in Thailand and beyond. The results of the in-depth face to face interviews with 22 executives from PPP executing agencies confirmed that the people sector is one of key stakeholders to create more PPP success. The explored Public-Private-People Partnership (PPPP) model was proposed to be the strategic stakeholder institutional model. The success criteria (SC) of PPP for each particular sector are mostly accepted as follows: Good public welfare delivery for public owner as contracting agency, rational/reasonable business profitability for private investor, and good quality of life for the public end-user groups. This research concluded that the highest concern of the public sector is good governance, followed by managerial system, legal framework, finance, and politics, respectively. The highest concern of the private sector is also good governance, followed by managerial system, finance, and business policy. And the highest concern of the people sector is project configurations, followed by legal framework, and good governance. Six critical success factors (CSFs) which include politics, legal framework, finance, project configurations, managerial system, and good governance are the key attributes of the explored model. The seventy (70) sub-critical success factors (SCSFs) of the public (29), private (25), and people (16) sectors have been identified and proposed to be policy regulating framework of PPP intervention. The quantitative research, which involved 65 respondents of surveyed questionnaires from 15 agencies, confirms that public or people participation in every stage of PPP procedure is highly essential-with the preferred participation channels involving by academic or professional agency. Lastly, 41 sub-critical success factors (SCSFs) of the public (17), private (13), and people (11) sectors are confirmed and proposed to be the operation regulating framework for PPP intervention. In conclusion, this research recommends that the reform of PPP mechanism in Thailand should be considered and pursued as such actions would likely lead to more sustainable benefits derived from large-scale public physical infrastructure development. The PPPP strategic stakeholder institutional model and its critical success factors discussed in this research could serve to help guide this pursuit. In addition, more research regarding both policy and operation in practice and academic evolution of the proposed PPPP strategic stakeholder institutional model are strongly recommended. And these key research topics should likely include the risk management, performance monitoring, and evaluation system as well as mutual partnership between government and private investors that would result in fair risk allocation, and strengthened PPP knowledge sharing system among all involved parties. Ultimately, the author hopes that the appropriate executions of this PPPP model and guided by the proposed PPPP strategic institutional, policy and operation regulating frameworks would continue to progressively evolve the outcome of sustainable public infrastructure development projects and affectively contribute to the better well-being of people who are end-users and/or impacted groups.
- ItemThe potential developing model of Sub-district Administrative Organizations (SAO) for the aging society in Roikhansarn area(National Institute of Development Administration, 2022) Yuvares Ludpa; Montree SocatiyanurakThis research has four purposes: search for the factors, conditions, phenomena and contexts that affect the potential of local Sub-district Administrative Organizations, which are essential to an ageing society and leads to the creation of a potential local model. There are aspects of an ageing society, including testing the potential model of local Sub-district Administrative Organizations for an aging society and making policy recommendations. Therefore, the researcher designed both qualitative and quantitative research to have both in-depth and broad perspectives leading to the creation of a potential model of local Sub-district Administrative Organizations that are essential to an ageing society and the inherent advantages of an administration and the delivery of public services, including the competencies of the Sub-district Administrative Organization for future efficiency and effectiveness. The research style was a mixed method design, a sequential mixed method starting with a qualitative method, followed by a quantitative method, and then another qualitative method (qualitative method + quantitative method + qualitative method) to get the most precise answer. Therefore, the first qualitative method created a new body of knowledge and confirmation of the construction from real phenomena and the quantitative method. In addition, confirmation of the authenticity of the phenomena by quantitative research was used, including confirming the model, leading to the development of a model that was consistent with the community context. The researcher used theoretical concepts about organizational management and competency, and theoretical concepts about effectiveness and achievement to lead to the study of the potential of local administrative organizations in the care of the elderly and as the research framework for this study. The research topic is the Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO) in the provinces of Roi Et, Khon Kaen, and Maha Sarakham. The first phase of the research was qualitative, key informants included administrators, namely the presidents of Sub-District Administrative Organizations, Sub-district clerks, the Director of the Welfare and Social Division, and personnel from 15 Sub-district Administrative Organizations in the Roi-Kaen-San area selected from organizations that had received awards for organizational administration as organizations with better organizational evaluation scores. The sampling used a specific selection method according to the research objectives. The research tool was an unstructured interview on issues related to organizational management, performance, effectiveness and achievement, leading to data analysis by using content analysis and writing a descriptive narrative. The research results found potential models of Sub-district Administrative Organizations in the sub-district area for an ageing society. Factors related to organizational management included the factors of management structure, learning resources of the organization and communication, to convey the work of the elderly in Sub-district Administrative Organizations in the Roi-Kaen-San area. The competency factors included leadership factors, follower status, attitude, work skills, and the body of knowledge for the operation of the elderly in the Roi-Kaen-San Sub-district Administrative Organization. These are factors related to the effectiveness and achievement of the Sub-district Administrative Organization's work on the elderly. In addition, the results of the study also found that the factors that promote the effectiveness and achievement of the organization include the collaboration factor, which is critical in promoting the ability of the Sub-district Administrative Organization to perform better on the elderly, particularly in reducing resource constraints in various aspects of the Sub-district Administrative Organization's operations that lead to success in the implementation of elderly management. The second phase of the research was quantitative, it answered the objectives of the study in order to confirm the potential development model of local Sub-district Administrative Organizations in an ageing society to propose and develop a potential model for local Sub-district Administrative Organizations, thus offering an essential service to an ageing society. The unit of analysis was at the organizational level, comprising Sub-district Administrative Organizations in Maha Sarakham Province, Khon Kaen Province, and Roi Et Province. The population consisted of 392 places, chosen by random sampling according to the research objectives, then using a non-probability random sampling of 200 places from the research and analysis results, creating an SEM model using the PLS Smart Package program, resulting in the testing and development of a model for development. The resulting pattern obtained from the statistical analysis was consistent with the results of the first phase of the research. In addition, the researcher brought the results of the second phase of research into the third phase of the research study to confirm the pattern following the context of the area by using focus group discussions with 12 relevant organizations, the results were consistent with the Phase 1 and Phase 2 studies, as well. Therefore, the knowledge and findings from this research can contribute to the Sub-district Administrative Organization's work planning for the elderly in order to strengthen the organization's capacity to accommodate changes in the population structure towards the elderly, particularly in the Roi-Khan-Sarn areas, thus leading to success in work with the elderly.
- ItemPerformance evaluation of migrants' working management policy between 2019-2020(National Institute of Development Administration, 2022) Hathaichanok Tongsrang; Chindalak VadhanasindhuThis study aims to 1) evaluate the migrants’ working management policy between 2019-2020, 2) study factors affecting performance of the migrants’ working management policy between 2019-2020, 3) develop an effective migrants’ working management model, and 4) suggest an effective migrants’ working management policy. The research is a mixed methods research combining qualitative research and quantitative research. The key informants included 20 implementors of relevant agencies selected by purposive sampling, and the data were analyzed by content analysis. The sample consisted of 400 employers employing migrant workers with Cambodian, Laotian, and Burmese nationalities in Bangkok and was randomly selected by Taro Yamane’s formula. The statistics used in the research were frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation. Results of the study showed that, in the performance of migrants’ working management policy between 2019-2020, 151,508 migrant workers had been granted their work permits from a name list of 197,280 workers submitted by their employers. Factors affecting the policy performance included policy, leadership of the organization, strategic planning, resource adequacy, digitalization, implementors, coordination and collaboration, public relations, clients/stakeholders, laws and regulations, and service processes. The effective migrants’ working management model consists of 4 main components. The first component is the organizational plan, which includes the policy, leadership of the organization, strategic planning, resource adequacy, digitalization, implementors, coordination and collaboration, public relations, clients/stakeholders, and laws and regulations. Another component is the service utilization plan, including service processes. The third one is outputs. The fourth component is outcomes. The model has been evaluated and approved by experts. All of the experts agreed that the composition of the model is appropriate. Model descriptions are congruent. The model is consistent with the national context. It is possible to implement as well as being useful for migrants’ working management in Thailand. The recommendations for an effective migrants’ working management policy are as follows: 1. The migrants’ working management policy, which has been approved by the Cabinet, will be effective only when the announcement of the Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Labour is issued. Therefore, for each policy promulgation, the announcement of the Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Labour must be made at the same time in order to prevent any gaps in the operation, because a policy is not a law. It is only an operational guideline. 2. The migrants’ working management policy should manage only a group of migrant workers in the nation who have been allowed to work and have an identity document from their country of origin. If those migrant workers do not renew their work permit within the specified period, or cannot find a new employer within the period specified by law, they will become illegal migrant workers. Thus, the registration of migrant workers should be opened specifically for those groups to prevent them from leaving the legal employment system. 3. Migrants’ working management should integrate a shared migrant worker database. There must be a main agency, such as the Office of the National Security Council (NSC), Internal Security Operations Command (ISOC), and Ministry of Digital Economy and Society to help link the information between each agency. 4. A shared, databased technology should be used for collecting migrant workers’ data, such as health examination, permission to stay in the Kingdom, work permit, preparing/updating history records and issuing an identity card for non-Thai persons. Relevant agencies should be able to check information from the shared database, and employers/enterprises should be able to track information from this system as well.
- ItemThe influence of institutional and political system factors on the changes in educational public expenditure and the benefit incidence analysis in Thailiand (1998-2019)(National Institute of Development Administration, 2022) Phichitchai Kingphuang; Ponlapat BuracomThis study compares the impact of institutional and political system factors on the adjustment of public education expenditure in Thailand to that of socioeconomic factors. It also investigates the benefit distribution of public education expenditure and the impact of public expenditures on access to education from 1998 to 2019. The study found that bureaucratic decision-making could cause incremental changes in public education spending. The changes were based on the preceding year's public education expenditure, population change, economic growth, and inequality of income distribution, all of which were socio-economic environmental factors that were gradually altered and difficult for the state to control. As a result, the allocation of public expenditure on education altered slightly from the previous year. Changes in education spending were also affected by institutional and political system factors, which are internal factors; for example, government efficiency, political stability, and civil liberties. However, due to the country's high level of inequality, a significant shift in education expenditure requires changes in other factors. For instance, by taking advantage of trade openness to collect revenue for expanding public services, and ensuring that the operation of government agencies is efficient and the budget is used effectively and efficiently. Yet, an increase in public expenditure on education alone cannot guarantee whether such public expenditures are evenly distributed to households across income classes and regions. The study shows that although public education expenditure has increased the income ratio after accounting for education spending in low-income families and households in other provinces or in different regions, the increase was very slight. The income ratios after benefiting from public education expenditure between high-income and low-income households and between households in Bangkok and households in other regions were reduced, but the gap reduction was not significant. This result demonstrates that education spending cannot, as expected, solve inequality. Furthermore, from 2015 onwards, the allocation of education expenditures has widened the gap in income after accounting for education expenditures between households in Bangkok and those in other regions. Particularly, public expenditure on tertiary education was found to have a clear disparity between high- and low-income classes and between households in Bangkok and those in other regional households. In addition, the COVID-19 epidemic has further increased educational inequality, aligning with the result of the study, which found that government efficiency, political stability, and civil liberties have an impact on public education expenditure. Furthermore, the unequal benefit incidence of education expenditure may have an impact on educational access. In other words, an allocation of education expenditure that is pro-rich or benefits households in Bangkok more than those in other regions has lowered the average years of schooling and literacy rate. Therefore, if the budget allocation is unequal or the benefits cannot be properly distributed to poor households and households in other regions, poor and rural people will not be able to access education, especially in the case of tertiary education. Thus, increasing public education expenditure alone cannot ensure an increase in quality of education and educational opportunities because it also depends on the form of government budget allocation and whether it is distributed fairly to different groups of people. Therefore, the policy recommendations are as follows: 1) political restructuring and the use of participatory budgeting; 2) emphasizing assistance in the form of targeted systems by improving universal coverage services; 3) rational budgeting and increasing the efficiency of the public sector; 4) formulating education policies that focus on improving the quality of education and schools in rural areas; 5) refining the public expenditure allocation system for tertiary education; and 6) focusing on education and technology development.
- ItemCollaborative governance in corporate social responsibility : cases of Thai Cement Manufacturers Association and Community Partnership Association(National Institute of Development Administration, 2022) Panuwat Khumsai; Tippawan LorsuwannaratCollaborative governance (CG) is within the organization, community, and between organizations. The principles for understanding these collaborations have limitations when explaining the phenomena in society. The collaboration arises from stakeholders in all dimensions and is collaborative between business competitors, with trust between communities and businesses and support from government agencies. This research aims to 1) study the CG process of networking in implementing CSR project case studies highlighting the Thai Cement Manufacturers Association (TCMA) and the Community Partnership Association (CPA), 2) study the success and failure factors of the CG process between networking in implementing a CSR projects case study of the TCMA and CPA, and 3) develop a model of the CG process of networking in implementing the CSR projects case study of the TCMA and CPA. The research is based on a qualitative research method, the researcher chose this case study method as a tool in CG between network partners and the CSR process from the case study of the “cement partnership project under TCMA” in the Cement Industry, Kaeng Khoi District, Saraburi Province, and the “CSR Project under the CPA” in Map Ta Phut Industrial Area, Rayong Province. Under 4 projects, key informants include 1) government organizations (in education), 2) the private sector (TCMA & CPA), and 3) the community sector (civil society), utilizing selected respondents with purposive sampling. Data collection uses participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and focus group discussion—data analysis using a content analysis method. The findings found that the CG in the CSR process, a case study of the TCMA and CPA, consists of 4 phases: the initial collaboration; collaboration building; the collaboration performance extension, and the collaborative approach toward sustainability. We also discovered mechanisms to support collaborative governance in CSR that are 4 important mechanisms in driving the association's main policy, mission and commitment when implementing projects, project monitoring and evaluations. The success and failure factors in CG are based on 4 case studies. At least 5 supporting factors contributing to successful implementation of the CSR project were: the leadership's policy and vision; cooperation or participation within the organization; integrating activities while teaching and learning proper management system design; and communication and coordination. On the other hand, at least 4 factors resulted in project failures or halts from the case study, namely: leadership changes, lack of continuity of the project, lack of integration, and a lack of monitoring and evaluation. The important conditions for project implementation and collaborative governance from case studies “policies and visions of leaders or executives” affect the implementation of CSR projects in both success and failure dimensions. It is also linked to TCMA & CPA leaders' policies and visions.
- ItemThe impacts of human resource management practices and leader-member exchange on the provincial waterworks authority's employees' attitudes and behaviors(National Institute of Development Administration, 2018) Oratai Naewchampa; Boon-anan PhinaitrupDrawing on the resource-based view (RBV) theory, social exchange theory and organizational support theory, this study examined the impacts of HRM practices and leader-member exchange (LMX) on employees’ attitudes and behaviors through perceived organizational support (POS) in the Provincial Waterworks Authority’s context. The objectives of this study were: 1) To examine the impacts of employees’ perceptions of the quality of HRM practices on perceived organizational support; 2) To examine the impact of employees’ perceptions of the quality of leader-member exchange on POS and affective commitment; and 3) To study the impact of POS on employees’ attitudes and behaviors. A mixed methods research strategy was employed, which included both quantitative and qualitative methods. In the quantitative method, the population consisted of 8,657 employees from the Provincial Waterworks Authority in Thailand. The researcher used a Stratified Simple Random Sampling technique and calculated the sample size based on the number of constructs or the model complexity, which were 520 employees. A total of 600 questionnaires were delivered by hand and mail, and 520 of the questionnaires were received back, equivalent to a 86.67 percent response rate. The questionnaire design was based on theoretical concepts, operational definitions and previous studies, and the tests were performed using content validity and reliability methods. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypothesized model. With respect to the qualitative method, the interview questions were established based on the statistical analysis of the results from the quantitative research, and then used to interview two HR directors, eight middle-level managers, eight supervisors and eight employees. The main objective of the in-depth interviews was to gain more details and insights to supplement and explain the quantitative research findings. The research findings showed that five HRM practices, involving rewards, training and development, internal promotion, information provided by HR, and working conditions, were positively related to POS, but performance management was not found to be positively related to POS. In addition, it was found that LMX was positively related to POS and affective commitment. Specifically, affective commitment was found to have positive impacts on employees’ attitudes and behaviors, including in-role performance and organizational citizenship behavior and negative impacts on turnover intention. Moreover, POS was found to have a positive association with job satisfaction, and job satisfaction was also found to have significant and positive impacts on in-role performance. The result of the test for a sense of obligation mediating the POS and affective commitment indicated that felt obligation mediated the relationship between POS and affective commitment. The findings of this study may help to create a better understanding of the role of HRM practices and POS, one of the process or mechanisms through which these practices influence employees’ attitudes and outcomes. In addition, the results of this study may help organizations find ways in designing and developing effective HRM systems to promote higher POS beliefs among employees and increase the quality of LMX relationship, which in turn, contribute to positive employee attitudes and behaviors.