- ItemA study of conceptual model for learning transfer in Thai banking sector(National Institute of Development Administration, 2018) Kulthida Mongkolsirikiet; Chiraprapha AkaraborwornThe main purpose of this research was to study Holton’s HRD evaluation and research model for learning transfer, excluding the organizational performance outcome portion, in order to develop and validate an instrument to measure the factors affecting the learning transfer of Thai employees and to test the emerging conceptual model of learning transfer with samples in the Thai banking sector, and to investigate the factors affecting the learning transfer and its relationship. The study includes an exclusive literature review of Edward Holton’s HRD evaluation model proposed by Edward Holton in 2005, the process of developing a new instrument of learning transfer, and testing the emerging learning transfer model. The research process was composed of three phases: Phase I, scale development, involved drafting an English version of a 72-item-scale from a related literature review, conducting back translation, and testing content validity with HR experts by using the index of item-objective congruence (IOC); Phase II, scale validation, involved analyzing all of the items using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with 679 front-line employees from three large-sized Thai commercial banks; and Phase III, model testing with structural equation modeling (SEM), was carried out in order to ascertain the causal links among the latent variables. The exploratory factor analysis results yielded six emerging constructs of the 71-item-scale; namely traits, employee commitment, motivation to improve work through learning, lack of opportunity to apply, a supportive environment, and transfer design. The confirmatory factor analysis results confirmed that the six-construct-model validation had a good fit. The results provided strong support for the structure of 15 factors: 7 factors in the specific training domain and 8 factors in the general training domain. The structural model testing disclosed that a supportive environment had a high impact on the motivation to improve work through learning, followed by traits and transfer design, whereas employee commitment hardly had any impact on motivation to improve work through learning, as opposed to what has been hypothesized in Holton’s HRD evaluation and research model (2005). The results of this study yield a new and comprehensive learning transfer measurement scale based on the emerged model, which can contribute not only to the work of academics, but also to Thai HRD practitioners and the Thai banking sector in order to systemically diagnose, detect, and solve problems regarding training effectiveness. Despite the fact that this study had not achieved testing the entire model, the results yielded valuable insights into the factors affecting learning transfer. Future studies should aim at validating the model and instrument in this study, as well as test the entire model using structural equation modeling, which could be validated in steps: on a single level, for example validating learning and all of the intervening variables affecting learning, and then moving on to a multi-level analysis during the next phase.
- ItemManagement and leadership of innovation and ambidexterity in the innovative high-performance enterprises in Thailand(National Institute of Development Administration, 2018) Hachapan Uachotikoon; Wichai UtsahajitTo be innovative and high-performance are two opposing dimensions in organizations; one requires innovativeness, another, efficiency. Innovativeness and efficiency each requires a different and, often, contrasting set of capability and mentality; this causes paradoxes for organizations to manage along the way. Ambidexterity or the capabilities to maximize both dimensions is instrumental in managing the paradoxes. This research set out to study the organizations considered to be innovative and high-performance to explore the antecedent factors that enable ambidexterity in these organizations. A multi-case study was opted as the research methodology to explore fifteen high-performance and innovative organizations; in-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen high-ranking executives, one from each organization. These organizations included three groups of company: 1) manufacturing corporations with over 100 innovation staff, 2) those with 51-100 innovation staff, and 3) IT/high-tech companies. The study sought out how these ambidextrous organizations manage and lead for both innovation and efficiency concurrently. The findings revealed six themes of the antecedents of ambidexterity: 1) separation and dynamics of structure, 2) strategic management, 3) systems, 4) project control procedures, 5) leadership, and 6) knowledge. Furthermore, the top-ten ranked antecedents were identified: 1) focusing corporate strategy on innovation and efficiency, 2) separated work unit for innovation, 3) setting directions for innovation, 4) up-front project feasibility screening, 5) timeline control, 6) management by committee, 7) budget control, 8) integration and cohesiveness of innovation management team, 9) innovation talent management, and 10) performance management system. Incidentally, also identified in the research were seven themes of the antecedent factors of innovation, i.e. 1) structure, 2) system-process-tool, 3) staff, 4) human resource development and management, 5) leadership for innovation, 6) organizational climate and culture, 7) knowledge, and 8) environmental elements. Furthermore, The top-ten ranked antecedent factors of innovation were identified as follows: 1) support for opportunities and resources, 2) leaders showing passion and/or involvement in innovation, 3) cross-functional project teams, 4) functional expertise, 5) internal spatial separation of structure, 6) customer insight and market intelligence, 7) keeping pace with the latest technology, 8) technological changes as triggers for innovation, 9) flat structure, and 10) innovation as strategy and/or core-value. The recommendation for practices proposed the following antecedent factors for organizations vying to be innovative and high-performance: 1) separation of structure for innovation, 2) alignment of explorative and exploitative functions, 3) ambidextrous strategic management, 4) scenario planning, 5) performance management systems, 6) talent management system, 7) project control procedures and tools, 8) separation of knowledge focus between management and frontline people, and 9) ambidextrous leadership.
- ItemBullying in workplace: a study of the relationships among big five personality traits and organizational cultures with the victimization of workplace bullying in Thai organizations(National Institute of Development Administration, 2019) Pisa Srivilai; Bung-on SorodIn Thailand, there are very few research studies on the topic of bullying in which most have focused on children in school. This present study was conducted in order to investigate the relationship among individual factors (big five personality traits), organizational cultures (power distance, masculinity, and individualism), and the victimization of bullying with coping strategies as a moderator. This study was conducted using a mixed method (qualitative and quantitative) with 193 samples for the quantitative approach and 12 participants for the qualitative approach. The samples in this study were white-collar employees aged between 20-60 years old in Thai urban setting included Bangkok and Chiang Mai. The measurement tools used in this research included IPIP-NEO 120 or big five personality test developed by Lewis Goldberg in 1999; organizational culture scales that comprised of power distance, masculinity, and individualism, and coping strategy scales. The victimization of bullying scales included physical, emotional, relational, and cyberbullying. All of the measurement tools were developed for this study except IPIP-NEO 120. The tools were tested of their validity and reliability. The reliabilities of the power distance, masculinity, and individualism questionnaires were high (α > .620). The reliabilities found for the victimization of physical, emotional, relational, and cyberbullying bullying questionnaires were also in the high range (α > .930.). The reliability for the coping strategies questionnaire was also high (α =.831). Data analyses utilizing those questionnaires found strong correlations among extraversion, neuroticism, and conscientiousness with the 4-type victimization of bullying; however, 2 personalities which were agreeableness and openness to experience displayed not significant correlations. In relation to the organizational cultures, this study discovered strong correlations between power distance, masculinity, and individualism with the 4-type victimization of bullying. This study demonstrated that the level of victimization were significantly affected by employing low coping strategies. To validate the findings, a semi structured interview method with a total of 16 questions was used in the qualitative approach. Most of the data from the quantitative results were supported by the elicited information from the interviews and also bring a new perspective to investigate. Further discussion of the findings, limitations, and recommendations for practices and future research were also discussed.
- ItemThe moderating effect of job-embeddedness on the relationships between organizational socialization with employee's performance, and with well-being of salespersons in Thailand(National Institute of Development Administration, 2019) Charatpong Chotigavanich; Bung-on SorodOrganizational socialization and job-embeddedness are among the tools and interventions that have long been used by practitioners to help newcomers better adjust to corporate culture (Cooper-Thomas & Anderson, 2005) and increase employees’ retention (Mitchell, Holtom & Lee, 2001) respectively. This study examines the relationships between organizational socialization with employee’s performance and organizational socialization with well-being of salespersons in Bangkok, Thailand. It also aims at exploring the moderating effect of job-embeddedness on those relationships. Understanding the relationships and the moderating effect of the variables as mentioned above can provide corporates with deeper insights on how to enhance employees’ productivity and capability. Data were collected from 422 salespersons of consumer product, cosmetics, consumer real estates, and whole sale pharmaceutical companies in Thailand. Data analyses showed statistically significant and positive relationships between organizational socialization with employee’s performance and organizational socialization with well-being. The analysis also indicated the moderating effect of job-embeddedness on the relationship between organizational socialization with employee’s performance, but not on the relationship between organizational socialization and well-being. Further detailed analysis also showed that the link component of job-embeddedness had the strongest effect among the three with sacrifice being the second, and fit being the least. Future research can be performed to investigate whether occupation uniqueness in salespersons or Eastern culture of Thailand may play an important role in these findings.
- ItemThe development of safety culture assessment and its validation: case study of Thai truck drivers(National Institute of Development Administration, 2018) Supavanee Thimthong; Nanta SooraksaSafety culture assessment is the instrument that can be used to capture employees’ perception about organizational safety culture in various dimensions. The main objective of this research was to investigate the constructs of multidimensional safety culture and consequently to develop a reliable and valid instrument to measure Thai truck driver’s perception on safety culture level in the workplace. This study employed the exploratory sequential mixed-method design ( i. e. qualitative research followed by quantitative research) to achieve the research objectives. The qualitative research was conducted using the indept interview with 12 subject matter experts ( e. g. 6 truck drivers, 3 logistics personnel, 2 safe-driving trainers, and 1 top management) in logistics industry using purposive sampling in order to determine the key constructs of safety culture in the context of Thai truck drivers. In accordance with the interview results, the existing accident causation model was applied to structure the key dimensions of safety culture. As a consequent, the key constructs were identified. Pool of items was generated adapting from existing instruments as well as newly developed based on the interview results. The first draft of safety culture assessment questionnaire was developed with 60 items altogether. Next step, the quantitative study was performed in order to examine reliability and validity of the newly developed scale. Firstly, the pilot test was conducted with 75 samples for item analysis purpose. At this stage of analysis, total of 19 items were removed. As a result, 41 items were remained for next analysis. The 41-item questionnaires were distributed to 1,010 truck drivers with 413 questionnaires returned, accounted for 40. 89% . These questionniares were then proceeded in the next level of analysis. Exploratory factor analysis ( EFA) was performed to identify sub-factors of each dimension. Eight sub-factors with total of 30 items were emerged as a result of EFA including management commitment, safety rules and training, supervisor support, co-worker support, work conditions, personal conditions, attentive action to safety, and supportive action to safety. Consequently, Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to validate all the measurement constructs. The results suggested that the four-dimension safety culture model ( 30 items) had an acceptable fit with the data (RMSEA = 0.044, RMR = 0.020, CFI = 0. 997, GFI = 0. 989 and composite reliability = 0. 8987) . Therefore, the result supported the good reliability and convergent validity (CR = 0.90 and AVE = 0.53) of newly developed safety culture assessment. In order to examine the concurrent validity, two analyses were performed. First, partial correlation was used to examine the relationship between four safety dimensions and safety outcomes. The result revealed that employee safety behavior dimension had negative relationship with the likelihood of near-miss accident. In addition, the structural equation modeling (SEM) was later conducted to examine how safety culture influence safety outcomes. After adjusting the model, the results suggested that safety culture had a direct effect on both safety outcomes, as well as produced an indirect effect to the likelihood of accident transmitted through the likelihood of near-miss accident. As a consequent, the results showed evidence for good concurrent validity of the studied instrument. The paper also discussed the limitation of the study, the possible future research as well as implications for utilizing safety culture assessment.
- ItemTransformational and transactional leadership: the features, existence, and influence(National Institute of Development Administration, 2018) Thamarat Jangsiriwattana; Busaya VirakulThe purposes of this study are to explore the features and existence of transformational and transactional leadership and its jointed effect, to examine the influence of these three leadership styles, and to confirm the leadership theory that the leadership effects on organizational performance. To verify this relationship, this study uses the quantitative method to prove the effects of leadership on organizational performance. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 1,047 teachers in the 92 schools under the Office of Basic Education Commission in Bangkok by using quota sampling. Data were analyzed using (a) Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) at the individual level of analysis; (b) Multiple Linear Regression for the organizational level of analysis. The findings revealed that transactional leadership showed the strongest influence on the subjective organizational performance followed by transformational leadership and the jointed effect of transformational and transactional leadership. Only the jointed effect of both leadership styles was significantly influencing the objective organizational performance. The results and implication of the study were discussed.