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    Public Speeches of the People's Democratic Reform Committee (PDRC) leader: the critical discourse analysis on social conflict
    Noppajakkr Sondhinera; Phichai Rattanatilaka Na Bhuket (National Institute of Development Administration, 2021)
    The purpose of the research is to study the discourse of the People’s Democratic Reform Committee leader, Suthep Thuagsuban’s public speaking from 2013- 2014 by using critical discourse analysis. 94 videos are selectively collected according to the triangulation technique for the document data. Research findings show numerous discourses been used during the six-month-long protest; each is developed specifically for the cause. To see the development of discourses and surrounding contexts, researcher divided the duration of protest to 3 periods; the initiative period, the peak period, and the maintain period. First, the initiative period was the boosted start of the anti- graft amnesty bill protest which took place from October to the end of November 2013. It was positive that political purpose of the anti-graft amnesty bill protest was changed once it became the People’s Democratic Reform Committee (PDRC) which was to eradicate Thaksin Shinawatra and his influence over Thai politics. Thus, the major discourse found in this period was “Thaksin Regime. ” Discourse of Thaksin Regime had constructed social reality about the corrupted system in the contemporary Thai politics, including corruption, bureaucratic system abuse. Surrounding context was the conflict of the corruption cases by Thaksin Shinawatra and his sister Yingluck Shinawatra’ s government which was a sequence of political corruptions. And Yingluck Shinawatra tried to make legitimacy laundry for her brother by passing the graft amnesty bill and another general election. Another discourse was called “ allegiance to Thai Monarch” which helped identifying the PDRC movement as a protest of the good people of Thailand. Allegiance to Thai Monarch also gave the protest the moral support and a mutual purpose of devotion. Second, the peak period was happened after the PDRC grew in number, over million people had joined the protest. With its strategic movement, Bangkok Shutdown ( divided to 13 rally sites), being platform for rice farmer protest and other political events, PDRC had successfully made a hard time for Yingluck Shinawatra’ s Administration. Once, PDRC gained much political pressure, it became a target from the government and government’ s supporting crowd, the Red- Shirt. Suthep Thuagsuban as the PDRC leader was being defamed in attempt to dismiss the protest. This surrounding context made discourse of “Uncle Headman” emerged to construct body-image of a good leader. It was consisted of a story of Suthep Thuagsuban since he was a Headman from Surat Thani whose dream was to be people’s representative, until he had become one of the most powerful political figures of Thai politics. Yet, he willingly gave up his title to lead the protest of PDRC, so the prominent politician became a people’s uncle headman, and the medium (host body of the collective mind), and the holy monk who kept his ordain to preserve the good and righteousness of the protest. Apart from Uncle Headman, there was a discourse of “ peaceful protest” because the surrounding context was full of violence done onto the PDRC by the government’s extremist supporters. Lastly, the maintain period which was marked when all PDRC rally sites had retreated to its last precinct, Lumpini Park for security and changes in its movement. By limiting its activities and sites, PDRC could pursue its goal of reforms. While Yingluck Shinawatra’s government had been exhausted from countering the protest, many conflicts had been concluded by the courts. It was an opportunity for PDRC to hammer at the government with all its strength. But it was a time for the extremist supporters of Yingluck Shinawatra desperately resorted an absurd idea of dividing the Kingdom. So, in this period there were various discourses, including reform, bureaucratic friends to secure the connection between the protest and the bureaucrats, soldiers, and polices. In this period, the evolving uncle headman and allegiance to Thai Monarch had played their part to strengthen the cause and common purpose of patriotism against an idea of dividing Kingdom.
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    การปรับตัวของคนจนเมืองในกรุงเทพมหานครเพื่อความมั่นคงในการดำรงชีพภายใต้ภาวะวิกฤตโควิด 19
    วัลย์ลิกา ลิ้มสุวรรณ; อาแว มะแส (สถาบันบัณฑิตพัฒนบริหารศาสตร์, 2023)
    การวิจัยนี้มีวัตถุประสงค์เพื่อศึกษาสภาพความเปราะบางที่ส่งผลกระทบต่อความยากจนและความเสี่ยงในการดำรงชีพรวมถึงการปรับตัวตลอดจนแนวทางการสร้างความมั่นคงในการดำรงชีพในภาวะวิฤตโควิด 19 ของครัวเรือนยากจนในชุมชนแออัด กรุงเทพมหานคร การดำเนินการวิจัยเป็นไปตามระเบียบวิธีวิจัยเชิงคุณภาพ ด้วยการลงพื้นที่ภาคสนามเพื่อรวบรวมข้อมูลในชุมชนแออัด จำนวน 2 แห่งที่เลือกมาแบบเจาะจง คือ 1) ชุมชนริมคลองพระยาราชมนตรี เขตบางบอน ซึ่งตั้งอยู่บริเวณชานเมือง และ 2) ชุมชนวัดช่องลม เขตยานนาวา ซึ่งตั้งอยู่ย่านใจกลางกรุงของกรุงเทพมหานคร การรวบรวมข้อมูลใช้วิธีการสัมภาษณ์เชิงลึกเป็นหลัก เสริมด้วยการสังเกตและการสนทนากลุ่ม เครื่องมือในการวิจัยประกอบด้วยแบบสำรวจทรัพย์สินที่เกี่ยวข้องกับการดำรงชีพ แนวคำถามสำหรับการสัมภาษณ์เชิงลึก แบบบันทึกการสังเกต และแบบบันทึกการสนทนากลุ่ม ผลการศึกษาพบว่าครัวเรือนยากจนในชุมชนแออัดส่วนมากมีทรัพย์สินที่จำเป็นต่อการดำรงชีพอย่างน้อย 3 ด้าน ได้แก่ ทรัพย์สินมนุษย์ ทรัพย์สินทางกายภาพ และทรัพย์สินทางการเงิน ซึ่งเป็นปัจจัยสำคัญที่ช่วยให้ครัวเรือนยากจนสามารถปรับตัวและดำรงชีพอยู่รอดภายใต้ภาวะวิกฤตโควิด 19 ด้วยการรับมือและปรับตัวบนพื้นฐานของทรัพย์สินที่มีอยู่หรือสามารถเข้าถึง ด้วยการแปลงทรัพย์สินต่าง ๆ ไปเป็นทุนในการดำรงชีพ อีกทั้งยังสามารถฟื้นคืนสู่สภาพเดิมได้ด้วยการประยุกต์ใช้ทุนที่มีอยู่ให้เกิดประโยชน์สูงสุด เสริมด้วยการสนับสนุนจากทุนทางสังคม โดยสามารถบูรณาการความร่วมมือในรูปแบบเครือข่ายประชาสังคมและการพึ่งพาญาติพี่น้องซึ่งส่วนมากอาศัยอยู่ในชุมชนอื่น ๆ นอกกรุงเทพมหานคร เมื่อเปรียบเทียบระหว่างชุมชนพบความแตกต่างบ้างระหว่างทรัพย์สินที่มีหรือเข้าถึง และระดับการปรับตัวของสมาชิกชุมชนในภาพรวม โดยเกี่ยวข้องกับความแตกต่างของทรัพย์สินและแรงกระตุ้นให้มีการตื่นตัวเพื่อวางแผนในการรับมือกับภัยพิบัติในอนาคต ข้อเสนอแนะเชิงนโยบายจึงควรส่งเสริมให้เกิดความเข้มแข็งของทุนทางสังคมในรูปแบบเครือข่ายทางสังคมที่มุ่งเน้นการร่วมมือกันช่วยเหลือบรรเทาทุกข์และดำเนินการอย่างต่อเนื่องเพื่อยกระดับการดำรงชีพภายหลังภาวะวิกฤต จะสร้างพลังขับเคลื่อนสังคมให้พัฒนาไปได้อย่างมีประสิทธิภาพและเป็นรูปธรรมต่อไป
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    Network learning process for smart farmer's self development
    Pannika Ngamcharoen; Li, Renliang (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)
    Network Learning is an essential and necessary factor to agricultural sections’ development since learning process which all community members can participate would bring to strengthen agriculturists by applying learning attitudes and experiences of network members to develop their learning process. This research article aims to: 1) Study learning process through agriculturists’ learning network in Pak Chong District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, who aim to transform themselves into intelligent agriculturists. 2) To study the problems and obstacles in the learning process through the network of farmers to develop themselves to be smart agriculture in Pak Chong District Nakhon Ratchasima Province 3) To use the information obtained to develop the learning process from an appropriate network of farmers in Pak Chong District  Nakhon Ratchasima Province Data collection in the learning process through agriculturists network from 3 sample groups; organic vegetable farm owner group, local governor group, and related local academic institute staff group, by using structural deep interview with an observation from qualitative research methods. The results showed that: 1) Learning process through agriculturist network initiated from occurrence of individual problems or requirement of self-development of members in network; secondly, exchanging problems among network members; thirdly, establishing space for exchanging knowledge and concluding lessons learned to operate altogether; fourthly, evaluation and adjusting; fifthly, a continuation of activities and expansion of cooperation region to build relationship and pursue for more explicit knowledge. 2) Problems and obstacles found were intermittence of activities; gathering and consulting happened only when issues, such as pest problem, occurred, the solution would be operated sluggishly. 3) Appropriate process development is to promote learning to occur at the individual level. At the community level, there should be activities that encourage ties with the network. In the network, cooperation between the networks should be promoted. Besides, the issue of overlapped work from government and lack of continuous coordination among organization caused the discontinuous giving knowledge accordingly. Consequently, to establish the highest advantages in learning for agriculturists, government holds the key role to promote and support local level activities exceedingly. For proper solution would be integration and coordination in all sections such as public and academic sector including cooperation of agriculturist group, as the results from learning among network group can be adapted and create more explicit knowledge to improve the quality of life of agriculturists which lead to the stability of life, the abundance of economic and elevate the quality of agriculture itself as well.
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    New media disruption: a case study of Chinese-language newspapers in Thailand
    Zhao, Jingnan; Li, Renliang (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)
    For over 100 years, Chinese-language newspapers in Thailand have played a unique role in the Chinese community and in Thailand-China international communication. Rapidly expanding internet usage has disrupted how news is produced, delivered, and consumed; however, presenting Chinese-language newspapers in Thailand with many challenges in the digital era. This study aims to 1) review the history of Chinese-language newspapers in Thailand, 2) investigate the challenges and opportunities of the Chinese-language newspapers in Thailand facing new media disruption, and 3) recommend strategies for the continued development of Chinese-language newspapers in Thailand. Data collection involved both macro-and micro-level analysis of interviews and direct observation. A case study of Sing Sian Yer Pao is presented, as well as the results of a qualitative research study conducted within 30 Chinese-language newspapers in Thailand stakeholders as participants, with data collected through secondary data analysis, in-depth interviews, and group discussion. The collected data was analyzed through Lasswell’s communication model and SWOT. The research result found that: 1) The history of Chinese-language newspapers in Thailand can be divided into seven general periods: beginning, growth, development, setback, golden age, depression, and stable period. There are currently six major Chinese-language daily newspapers, namely Sing Sian Yer Pao, The Universal Daily News, Tong Hua Daily News, The New Chinese Daily News, Kia Hua Tong Nguan, and Asia News Time. The development of Chinese-language newspapers over the past several years corresponds with trends in Thailand’s media and the Thailand-China international relationship. 2) The Chinese-language newspapers in Thailand face considerable challenges in the face of new media disruption. The most prominent problems are the lack of new talent and insufficient financial support, which have significantly restricted the transformation of the Chinese-language newspaper industry in Thailand into a melted media enterprise. Secondly, due to their longstanding customary management models, it is tough to reform the internal management of Chinese-language newspapers in Thailand. This study’s findings show that although Chinese-language newspapers in Thailand play an essential role in communication and can significantly contribute to all areas of the Chinese community’s development in Thailand, their potential remains vastly untapped due to certain obstacles. The Chinese-language newspaper industry in Thailand could benefit from a development program. 3) To apply the study results, Chinese-language newspapers should develop their human resources and expand their user base with accurate customer targeting, improved content production, and other strategies that help foster competitive advantages and customer satisfaction.
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    Nomological model of study-life balance and sustainable success in undergraduate students
    Krisana Chotratanakamol; Duchduen Bhanthumnavin (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)
    The pursuit of study-life balance is a vital determinant of students overall success and well-being in academic and personal domains. However, there is still limited research in Thailand. This research was a nomological network study with aims to: 1) investigate crucial predictors and predictive percentage of psychological characteristics, situational factors, and psychological states related to the study-life balance of undergraduate students. 2) investigate crucial predictors and predictive percentage of psychological states and study-life balance related to the sustainable success of the students. 3) investigate direct and indirect effects of psychological characteristics and situational factors on study-life balance and the sustainable success of the students, and 4) identify characteristics of students with low study-life balance (the at-risk group) and protective factors that promote study-life balance in the students. The multi-stage sampling method was used, and the samples consisted of 597 undergraduate students from the second and third years of four public universities in Thailand. The sample included 174 males (29.20%) and 422 females (70.80%), with an average age of 20 years and 3 months. Among the participants, 150 were working while studying (25.10%) and 447 were non-working students (74.90%). The data were analyzed in total sample group and 25 subgroups, categorized according to demographic characteristics. Multiple regression analysis, structural equation modeling (SEM), and three-way analysis of variance were applied to test the hypotheses. The interactionism model was adopted to form the conceptual model of this study. There were 6 groups of variables as follows; 1) Psychological traits variables (self-regulation, core self-evaluation, and psychology immunity), 2) Situational factors variables (perceived support opportunity from others, academic demands, and university inculcating experience), 3) Psychological states variables (favorable attitudes toward adjustment and innovation, creative problem-solving, and proactive personality), 4) Study life balance variables (study-life conflict reduction and study-life enrichment), 5) Sustainable success variables (academic success, life satisfaction, and health and wellness), and 6) Background characteristics variables. Most of the measures in this study were in the form of summated rating method with 6-point rating scale. The range of score reliability was between .70 to .86. Multiple regression analysis showed important findings as follows: Firstly, regarding the psychological traits and the perceived situation variables (Set 3), there were 6 variables that could predict the psychological states: 1) favorable attitudes toward adjustment and Innovation for 57.72% in total sample. The important predictors were perceived support opportunity from others (β=.34), psychological immunity (β=.30), and self-regulation (β=.22), respectively, 2) creative problem solving for 66.61% in total sample. The important predictors were self-regulation (β=.26), perceived support opportunity from others (β=.21), core self-evaluation (β=.19), university inculcating experience (β=.16), and psychological immunity (β=.16), and 3) proactive personality for 77.03% in total sample. The important predictors were psychological immunity (β=.32), core self-evaluation (β=.22), perceived support opportunity from others (β=.21), self-regulation (β=.18), academic demands (β=-.14), and university inculcating experience (β=.11). Overall, the results were found to support hypothesis 1 only in subgroups of each dependent variables.  Secondly, the 9 predictors from the psychological traits, situational factors, and psychological states (Set 5) could predicted the study-life balance behavior as follows: 1) study-life conflict reduction for 72.11% in total sample. The important predictors were perceived support opportunity from others (β=.21), favorable attitudes toward adjustment and innovation (β=.20), psychological immunity (β=.19), core self-evaluation (β=.18), proactive personality (β=.13), creative problem solving (β=.13), and self-regulation (β=-.08), 2) study-life enrichment for 69.74% in total sample. The important predictors in descending order were perceived support opportunity from others (β= .47), creative problem solving (β=.35), and university inculcating experience (β=.10). Overall, the data analysis on study-life balance that supported hypothesis 2 was only found in subgroups. Thirdly, the 11 predictors (Set 7) in this study, including variables in psychological traits, situational factors, psychological states, and study-life balance, could predicted the outcome variables as follows: 1) academic success for 79.28% in total sample. The important were proactive personality (β=.34), creative problem solving (β=.19), core self-evaluation (β=.16), favorable attitudes toward adjustment and Innovation (β=.15), study-life conflict reduction (β=-.12), self-regulation (β=.10), study-life enrichment (β=.10), university inculcating experience (β=.09) and academic demands (β=.07), 2) life satisfaction for 69.35% in total sample. The important predictors were perceived support opportunity from others (β=.37), core self-evaluation (β=.34), study-life enrichment (β=.19), and university inculcating experience (β=.11), 3) health and wellness for 67.98% in total sample. The important predictors in descending order were core self-evaluation (β=.69), proactive personality (β=-.22), creative problem-solving (β=.13), perceived support opportunity from others (β=.13), academic demands (β=.12), study-life enrichment (β=.10), favorable attitudes toward adjustment and innovation (β=-.10), university inculcating experience (β=.07). The results of data analysis on sustainable success did not support hypothesis 3, in both total group and subgroups. Fourthly, the results from path analysis modeling indicated the model fit for the adjusted model (x2 = 39.086; df = 27; p-value = 0.0622; RMSEA = 0.027; CFI = 0.998; TLI = 0.995; SRMR = 0.050). The results supported hypothesis 4 based on the interactionism model. Psychological traits and situational latent variables had direct influence on study-life balance latent variable and indirect influence through the psychological states latent variable, which could explain the behavior latent variable (R2=96.8%). Study-life balance latent variable and psychological states latent variable had direct influence on sustainable success and indirect influence through study-life balance latent variable, which could explain the sustainable success latent variable (R2= 94.8%.) In addition, there were additional direct effects from psychological trait latent variable to situational latent variables (R2= 97.4%). Finally, characteristics of the at-risk group who showed lower study-life balance were described as follows: 1) low GPA students, 2) non-working students, 3) science and technology, junior students 4) junior students, 5) low-income students, 6) science and technology students, 7) high GPA, low-income students, 8) low GPA, high-income students, 9) sophomore humanities and social science students, and 10) junior business administration students. Moreover, the critical preventive factors of these at-risk groups of students were perceived support opportunity from others, creative problem solving, university inculcating experience, psychological immunity, and favorable attitudes toward adjustment and innovation. Based on the findings of the present study, the interactionism model and nomological network were considered as valuable tools for understanding human behavior. The findings highlighted the importance of proactive personality in achieving study-life balance for students and emphasized the need to foster individuals with lower levels of study-life balance. Additionally, psychological immunity and social support were also identified as important factors. To improve essential study-life balance skills for Thai university students, it is recommended to enhance these factors through general education courses, class activities, and training interventions.
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    A whistleblowing in Thalland's bureaucracy
    Sawai Seesai; Somsak Samukkethum (National Institute of Development Administration, 2022)
    Corruption is a complicated social, political, and economic phenomenon that occurs on a large scale and affects the whole society. The phenomenon undermines democracy, the justice system, human rights, market mechanisms, economic potentiality, and people life’s quality, and causes other negative impacts on human security. Corruption occurs in all countries and is considered one of the most severe problems; there is no sign for the problem to deplete but more and more severe and complicated. All the countries around the world have been trying to establish policies and measures to prevent and eliminate corruption, such as increasing compensation for a government official, decreasing the state’s organization, creating financial transparency, developing the media’s freedom, strengthening a justice system, etc. Among these policies and mechanisms, whistleblowing is one of the tools to fight corruption and promote good governance, responsibility, and transparency and is deemed one of the most effective mechanisms to fight corruption.  However, in Thailand, there are limited studies on whistleblowing and is found in limited contexts. The body of knowledge on whistleblowing in Thailand’s context does not reflect existing and ongoing corruption. The development of mechanisms or systems to support whistleblowing should be based on an understanding of the phenomenon in the Thailand context. This study aims to study corruption and whistleblowing to understand conditions that facilitate or prevent whistleblowing as well as propose the concept to develop a supportive and promotion system of whistleblowing in the future. The study found that the state’s policies do not facilitate or promote whistleblowing in the bureaucratic system. The government’s personnel feel unsure that the government would value the prevention and elimination of corruption. The government does not have a specific mechanism for whistleblowing and there is no exact data about existing whistleblowing. The whistleblowing case is treated as other types of complaints. The whistleblower and the witness feel insecure about government support, organization justice, acceptance, confidentiality, and protection from revenge. Government officials lack of understanding how to handle in case they witness corruption. In addition, the study found that the whistleblowing case is a social exemption case that occurs and influences solely by personal dimensions, including professional norms, self-esteem, locus of control, moral development, and ethical belief. The whistleblowing case which influences by personal dimensions makes it almost impossible to happen again in other contexts; this is because there is no guarantee that personal dimensions would be powerful enough if compared with a fear of revenge, an exclusion from society, and impacts to family and works. Engagement from civil society and the media play an important role in an investigation of corruption and the protection of the whistleblower.  The study suggests that there should be a reform of laws, the justice system, justice strategies, and management approach to prevent and eliminate corruption by developing the specific legal system, justice system, justice strategies, and management for whistleblowing cases, revenge prevention, and whistleblower protection. The government should develop its management mechanism and good governance, eliminate the patronage system, reform roles and responsibilities, professionalism, and transparency. The government should manage the data to separate whistleblowing cases from other complaints and should promote more engagements between civil society and the media.