- ItemNew media disruption: a case study of Chinese-language newspapers in Thailand(National Institute of Development Administration, 2022) Zhao, Jingnan; Li, RenliangFor over 100 years, Chinese-language newspapers in Thailand have played a unique role in the Chinese community and in Thailand-China international communication. Rapidly expanding internet usage has disrupted how news is produced, delivered, and consumed; however, presenting Chinese-language newspapers in Thailand with many challenges in the digital era. This study aims to 1) review the history of Chinese-language newspapers in Thailand, 2) investigate the challenges and opportunities of the Chinese-language newspapers in Thailand facing new media disruption, and 3) recommend strategies for the continued development of Chinese-language newspapers in Thailand. Data collection involved both macro-and micro-level analysis of interviews and direct observation. A case study of Sing Sian Yer Pao is presented, as well as the results of a qualitative research study conducted within 30 Chinese-language newspapers in Thailand stakeholders as participants, with data collected through secondary data analysis, in-depth interviews, and group discussion. The collected data was analyzed through Lasswell’s communication model and SWOT. The research result found that: 1) The history of Chinese-language newspapers in Thailand can be divided into seven general periods: beginning, growth, development, setback, golden age, depression, and stable period. There are currently six major Chinese-language daily newspapers, namely Sing Sian Yer Pao, The Universal Daily News, Tong Hua Daily News, The New Chinese Daily News, Kia Hua Tong Nguan, and Asia News Time. The development of Chinese-language newspapers over the past several years corresponds with trends in Thailand’s media and the Thailand-China international relationship. 2) The Chinese-language newspapers in Thailand face considerable challenges in the face of new media disruption. The most prominent problems are the lack of new talent and insufficient financial support, which have significantly restricted the transformation of the Chinese-language newspaper industry in Thailand into a melted media enterprise. Secondly, due to their longstanding customary management models, it is tough to reform the internal management of Chinese-language newspapers in Thailand. This study’s findings show that although Chinese-language newspapers in Thailand play an essential role in communication and can significantly contribute to all areas of the Chinese community’s development in Thailand, their potential remains vastly untapped due to certain obstacles. The Chinese-language newspaper industry in Thailand could benefit from a development program. 3) To apply the study results, Chinese-language newspapers should develop their human resources and expand their user base with accurate customer targeting, improved content production, and other strategies that help foster competitive advantages and customer satisfaction.
- ItemNomological model of study-life balance and sustainable success in undergraduate students(National Institute of Development Administration, 2022) Krisana Chotratanakamol; Duchduen BhanthumnavinThe pursuit of study-life balance is a vital determinant of students overall success and well-being in academic and personal domains. However, there is still limited research in Thailand. This research was a nomological network study with aims to: 1) investigate crucial predictors and predictive percentage of psychological characteristics, situational factors, and psychological states related to the study-life balance of undergraduate students. 2) investigate crucial predictors and predictive percentage of psychological states and study-life balance related to the sustainable success of the students. 3) investigate direct and indirect effects of psychological characteristics and situational factors on study-life balance and the sustainable success of the students, and 4) identify characteristics of students with low study-life balance (the at-risk group) and protective factors that promote study-life balance in the students. The multi-stage sampling method was used, and the samples consisted of 597 undergraduate students from the second and third years of four public universities in Thailand. The sample included 174 males (29.20%) and 422 females (70.80%), with an average age of 20 years and 3 months. Among the participants, 150 were working while studying (25.10%) and 447 were non-working students (74.90%). The data were analyzed in total sample group and 25 subgroups, categorized according to demographic characteristics. Multiple regression analysis, structural equation modeling (SEM), and three-way analysis of variance were applied to test the hypotheses. The interactionism model was adopted to form the conceptual model of this study. There were 6 groups of variables as follows; 1) Psychological traits variables (self-regulation, core self-evaluation, and psychology immunity), 2) Situational factors variables (perceived support opportunity from others, academic demands, and university inculcating experience), 3) Psychological states variables (favorable attitudes toward adjustment and innovation, creative problem-solving, and proactive personality), 4) Study life balance variables (study-life conflict reduction and study-life enrichment), 5) Sustainable success variables (academic success, life satisfaction, and health and wellness), and 6) Background characteristics variables. Most of the measures in this study were in the form of summated rating method with 6-point rating scale. The range of score reliability was between .70 to .86. Multiple regression analysis showed important findings as follows: Firstly, regarding the psychological traits and the perceived situation variables (Set 3), there were 6 variables that could predict the psychological states: 1) favorable attitudes toward adjustment and Innovation for 57.72% in total sample. The important predictors were perceived support opportunity from others (β=.34), psychological immunity (β=.30), and self-regulation (β=.22), respectively, 2) creative problem solving for 66.61% in total sample. The important predictors were self-regulation (β=.26), perceived support opportunity from others (β=.21), core self-evaluation (β=.19), university inculcating experience (β=.16), and psychological immunity (β=.16), and 3) proactive personality for 77.03% in total sample. The important predictors were psychological immunity (β=.32), core self-evaluation (β=.22), perceived support opportunity from others (β=.21), self-regulation (β=.18), academic demands (β=-.14), and university inculcating experience (β=.11). Overall, the results were found to support hypothesis 1 only in subgroups of each dependent variables. Secondly, the 9 predictors from the psychological traits, situational factors, and psychological states (Set 5) could predicted the study-life balance behavior as follows: 1) study-life conflict reduction for 72.11% in total sample. The important predictors were perceived support opportunity from others (β=.21), favorable attitudes toward adjustment and innovation (β=.20), psychological immunity (β=.19), core self-evaluation (β=.18), proactive personality (β=.13), creative problem solving (β=.13), and self-regulation (β=-.08), 2) study-life enrichment for 69.74% in total sample. The important predictors in descending order were perceived support opportunity from others (β= .47), creative problem solving (β=.35), and university inculcating experience (β=.10). Overall, the data analysis on study-life balance that supported hypothesis 2 was only found in subgroups. Thirdly, the 11 predictors (Set 7) in this study, including variables in psychological traits, situational factors, psychological states, and study-life balance, could predicted the outcome variables as follows: 1) academic success for 79.28% in total sample. The important were proactive personality (β=.34), creative problem solving (β=.19), core self-evaluation (β=.16), favorable attitudes toward adjustment and Innovation (β=.15), study-life conflict reduction (β=-.12), self-regulation (β=.10), study-life enrichment (β=.10), university inculcating experience (β=.09) and academic demands (β=.07), 2) life satisfaction for 69.35% in total sample. The important predictors were perceived support opportunity from others (β=.37), core self-evaluation (β=.34), study-life enrichment (β=.19), and university inculcating experience (β=.11), 3) health and wellness for 67.98% in total sample. The important predictors in descending order were core self-evaluation (β=.69), proactive personality (β=-.22), creative problem-solving (β=.13), perceived support opportunity from others (β=.13), academic demands (β=.12), study-life enrichment (β=.10), favorable attitudes toward adjustment and innovation (β=-.10), university inculcating experience (β=.07). The results of data analysis on sustainable success did not support hypothesis 3, in both total group and subgroups. Fourthly, the results from path analysis modeling indicated the model fit for the adjusted model (x2 = 39.086; df = 27; p-value = 0.0622; RMSEA = 0.027; CFI = 0.998; TLI = 0.995; SRMR = 0.050). The results supported hypothesis 4 based on the interactionism model. Psychological traits and situational latent variables had direct influence on study-life balance latent variable and indirect influence through the psychological states latent variable, which could explain the behavior latent variable (R2=96.8%). Study-life balance latent variable and psychological states latent variable had direct influence on sustainable success and indirect influence through study-life balance latent variable, which could explain the sustainable success latent variable (R2= 94.8%.) In addition, there were additional direct effects from psychological trait latent variable to situational latent variables (R2= 97.4%). Finally, characteristics of the at-risk group who showed lower study-life balance were described as follows: 1) low GPA students, 2) non-working students, 3) science and technology, junior students 4) junior students, 5) low-income students, 6) science and technology students, 7) high GPA, low-income students, 8) low GPA, high-income students, 9) sophomore humanities and social science students, and 10) junior business administration students. Moreover, the critical preventive factors of these at-risk groups of students were perceived support opportunity from others, creative problem solving, university inculcating experience, psychological immunity, and favorable attitudes toward adjustment and innovation. Based on the findings of the present study, the interactionism model and nomological network were considered as valuable tools for understanding human behavior. The findings highlighted the importance of proactive personality in achieving study-life balance for students and emphasized the need to foster individuals with lower levels of study-life balance. Additionally, psychological immunity and social support were also identified as important factors. To improve essential study-life balance skills for Thai university students, it is recommended to enhance these factors through general education courses, class activities, and training interventions.
- ItemA whistleblowing in Thalland's bureaucracy(National Institute of Development Administration, 2022) Sawai Seesai; Somsak SamukkethumCorruption is a complicated social, political, and economic phenomenon that occurs on a large scale and affects the whole society. The phenomenon undermines democracy, the justice system, human rights, market mechanisms, economic potentiality, and people life’s quality, and causes other negative impacts on human security. Corruption occurs in all countries and is considered one of the most severe problems; there is no sign for the problem to deplete but more and more severe and complicated. All the countries around the world have been trying to establish policies and measures to prevent and eliminate corruption, such as increasing compensation for a government official, decreasing the state’s organization, creating financial transparency, developing the media’s freedom, strengthening a justice system, etc. Among these policies and mechanisms, whistleblowing is one of the tools to fight corruption and promote good governance, responsibility, and transparency and is deemed one of the most effective mechanisms to fight corruption. However, in Thailand, there are limited studies on whistleblowing and is found in limited contexts. The body of knowledge on whistleblowing in Thailand’s context does not reflect existing and ongoing corruption. The development of mechanisms or systems to support whistleblowing should be based on an understanding of the phenomenon in the Thailand context. This study aims to study corruption and whistleblowing to understand conditions that facilitate or prevent whistleblowing as well as propose the concept to develop a supportive and promotion system of whistleblowing in the future. The study found that the state’s policies do not facilitate or promote whistleblowing in the bureaucratic system. The government’s personnel feel unsure that the government would value the prevention and elimination of corruption. The government does not have a specific mechanism for whistleblowing and there is no exact data about existing whistleblowing. The whistleblowing case is treated as other types of complaints. The whistleblower and the witness feel insecure about government support, organization justice, acceptance, confidentiality, and protection from revenge. Government officials lack of understanding how to handle in case they witness corruption. In addition, the study found that the whistleblowing case is a social exemption case that occurs and influences solely by personal dimensions, including professional norms, self-esteem, locus of control, moral development, and ethical belief. The whistleblowing case which influences by personal dimensions makes it almost impossible to happen again in other contexts; this is because there is no guarantee that personal dimensions would be powerful enough if compared with a fear of revenge, an exclusion from society, and impacts to family and works. Engagement from civil society and the media play an important role in an investigation of corruption and the protection of the whistleblower. The study suggests that there should be a reform of laws, the justice system, justice strategies, and management approach to prevent and eliminate corruption by developing the specific legal system, justice system, justice strategies, and management for whistleblowing cases, revenge prevention, and whistleblower protection. The government should develop its management mechanism and good governance, eliminate the patronage system, reform roles and responsibilities, professionalism, and transparency. The government should manage the data to separate whistleblowing cases from other complaints and should promote more engagements between civil society and the media.
- ItemMoving toward social enterprise : dynamics and development of agricultural-based occupational groups in Chiang Rai Province(National Institute of Development Administration, 2022) Siam Atchariyaprapa; Awae MasaeThe objectives of this research were: 1) to study livelihood strategies and adaptation of agricultural-based occupational groups in Chiang Rai Province following the social enterprise approach; 2) to investigate the driving process of agricultural-based occupational group development to be social enterprises; and 3) to analyze the effects of this driving on livelihood improvement of local community members. The research was conducted following the qualitative research methodology in which the case study approach was primarily chosen. Three community enterprises upgraded from agricultural-based occupational groups in rural communities in Chiang Rai Province, namely 1) Ban Samarnmit Organic Products Processing Community Enterprise, 2) Ban Pa Saang Nuea Food Processing Community Enterprise and 3) Naang Lae Pineapple Grower Community Enterprise for Export in Ban Rong Pla Khao, were purposively selected. In-depth interviews were conducted for data collection with 36 key informants together with non-participant observation. Data were analyzed by means of content analysis, typological analysis, logical reasoning and data synthesis. The research findings were as follows. 1) Most of the community members in the three communities selected were engaged in agriculture, but they often faced the vulnerabilities caused by water shortage for farming and low prices of agricultural products. As a result, they adapted their livelihood strategies by establishing agricultural-based occupational groups to work together in solving the problems. 2) The development driving process of agricultural occupational groups of all three communities was related to adjusting the management of livelihood assets available in each community and wisely utilized them to improve production process and products’ quality by applying entrepreneurial concepts of management. 3). The development and the adaptation of these agricultural-based occupational groups resulted in the improvement of the livelihoods of the community members, especially those participated actively in the development process.
- ItemPsychological characteristics, and external and internal familial conditions as correlates of perceived appropriated child-rearing practices in Thai Junior High School students(National Institute of Development Administration, 2015) Trongkamon Sanamkate; Duchduen BhanthumnavinThis correlation-comparative study aimed at investigating the integrated important predictors of the student's perceived appropriated child-rearing practices. The conceptual framework of this study was based on the Interactionism model. The samples were 595 students in 8th grade with the age between 13-15 years. It consisted of 282 male students (47.5%) and 312 female students (52.5%) whom 311 students (52.4%) were in Bangkok and the rest of 283 students (47.6%) attended school inprovince. The samples were obtained from multistage random sampling method. Data were analyzed in total sample group, as well as, in 16 subgroups. There were 15 measures in the form of summated rating scale. Alpha coefficient ranged from 0.64 to 0.92. There were 6 groups of variables in this study. First, psychological traits, consisting of 3 variables, i.e., mental health, social perspective taking, and core self- evaluation. Second, internal familial conditions consisting of 3 variables, i.e, parental relation, parental conflict coping, parent-child relation. Third, extemnal familial conditions consisting of 3 variables, i.e, parental work-family confict, social support from significant others and parental workload. Fourth, psychological states, consisting of 3 variables, ie., favorable attitudes toward father, favorable attitudes toward mother and psychological immunity. Fifth,perceived appropriated child-rearing practices, consisting of 3 variables, i.e., perceived love-oriented child-rearing practices, perceived reasoning-oriented child-rearing practices, and happiness in life. Finally is background variables of the students. The important findings from this study were as follows. First, the result revealed that all 12 predictors from the groups of psychological traits, situations, and psychological states, could accou unted for 1) perceived love-oriented child-rearing practice with 37.0% of accuracy. The important predictors from descending order were favorable attitudes toward father, parent-child relation, favorable attitudes toward mother, social support from significant others, psychological immunity, and social perspective taking. The highest predictive percentage was found in students with high income father with 47.7%. 2) Perceived reasoning-oriented child- rearing practice with 30.4% of accuracy. The important predictors from descending order were favorable attitudes toward father, social support from significant others, psychological immunity, social perspective taking, favorable attitudes toward mother, The highest predictive percentage was found in students with high income father with 47.0%. Secondly, all 14 predictors from the groups of psychological traits, situations, psychological states, and perceived appropriated child-rearing practices, could account for the varianve of the happiness in life with 16.6% of accuracy. The important predictors from descending order were core self-evaluation, parental relation, social support from significant others and mental health. Thirdly, results from path analysis revealed that psychological trait and situational factors, with internal and extemal familial conditions directly affected perceived appropriated child-rearing practices via psychological states with R? of 0.874. Intemnal familial condition was directly affected by psychological trait and extemal familial conditions with R? of 0.791. Perceived appropriated child-rearing practices was directly affected by only psychological states with R? of 0.721. Finally, the art-risk groups displaying less appropriated child-rearing practices were female students. Furthermore, students with high salary reported less psychological immunity. Results from this study revealed that the variables in parental work-family conflict group correlated with perceived appropriated child-rearing practices. This issue should be studied for future research study. Moreover, it is encouraged to include parents as samples, as well as, conducting mix method in future study.
- ItemBuilding a social network on facebook for managing romantic love related problems in women(National Institute of Development Administration, 2017) Kanitta Yampochai; Awae MasaeThis qualitative research employed the participatory action research and case study methods. There are 3 objectives as follows: 1) to investigate social contexts and personal attributes of those entering the designated Facebook network; 2) to examine patterns of relationship in an online social network linking to the management of romantic love problems of women on the Facebook; and 3) to build a model of social network for the management of romantic love problems among women on the Facebook. Data was analyzed by understanding the meanings, typological analysis, data synthesis and interpretation. Findings reveal that the Facebook community can illustrate the relationship among its members in a form of social network which can be explained based on the “Addressee Honorific” norms. The community characterizes the combination of the primary and secondary type according to the Gemeinshaft and Geselshaft concepts. From the target group of 61 observations, their interaction related to the management of love problems can be classified into 4 patterns: 1) parent pattern; although no message interaction about love problem, the relation is the positive, 2) sibling pattern; although no message interaction about love problem, the relationship is more positive than negative, 3) relative pattern; if having the message interaction about love problem, the negative relation does not occur but if non-having the message interaction about love problem, the negative relation occurs, and 4) friend pattern; if non-having the message interaction about love problem, the high negative relation occurs. Additionally, 2 levels of love problem management are found: personal level and group level. Data synthesis for building a model of social network for the management of love problems in women reveals that there are 2 related processes i.e. building process and development process, and 3 cycles including: 1) conceptual cycle, 2) model building cycle, and 3) development cycle. These components are interrelated.